Computer Studies -- English Book

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PREFACE

The manual is intended for students of computer faculties learning professional English. The main purpose of the manual is to polish and perfect the English skills of students that will enable them to deal effectively with reading materials on speciality. In other words, it aims to bring the stu­dents from a general knowledge of the English language to the competence necessary for tackling more difficult work, such as mastering professional English.

The book is designed to guide the students in the development of a con­scious, reflective attitude toward learning English.

The manual consists of 10 units, vocabulary and glossary. Every unit provides students with short readings coordinated by theme and vocabulary. There are exercises that deal with technical terms and grammar structures, livery unit presents computer terms and concepts that students need to know in order to write and speak on topics related to their profession.

The manual is also very helpful for students who wish to read and un­derstand computer related authentic material.

Unit 1

USES FOR COMPUTERS

  1. Read the following words.

Electronic, according, literate, accomplish, purpose, fluent, powerful, pursuit, precise, extraordinary, massive, fundamental, tremendous, enormously, specific, detail.

1.2. Read and translate the following word-combinations.

An electronic device, the results of processing, computer literate, a problem-solving tool, fast and precise machines, specific operations, revolutionary technologies, massive amounts of detail, data processing, countless combinations, varied applications, highly complex questions, fundamental operations, personal and professional pursuits, tremendous speed, a human being, computer literacy

    1. Learn key words and word-combinations.

add (v) - додавати

apply (v) - застосовувати

carry out (v) – виконувати

computer (n)– комп’ютер, EOM

data (n)– дані

delete(v)- усувати;витирати

device (n)– пристрій

divide (v) - ділити

information (n)– інформація

input (n)– уведення; вхідні дані; пристрій введення; (v) уводити дані

instruction (n) – команда

multiply (v) - множити

output (n)– виведення (даних); вихідні дані; пристрій виведення; (v) виводити дані

process (v)– опрацьовувати; обробляти

processing – опрацювання; обробляння

set of instructions – набір команд

software (n)– програмне забезпечення

store (v)– зберігати; запам’ятовувати

subtract (v) – віднімати

    1. Read and translate the text.

WHAT IS A COMPUTER?

A computer is an electronic device that can accept input, process it according to a set of instructions, store the instruc­tions and the results of processing, and produce results as its output.

The facts, numbers, letters, and im­ages input to a computer are called data. The instructions that carry out the pro­cessing are calledcomputer programs or software. The output, intended for use and interpretation by people, is called information.

These definitions, however, do not reveal the scope and influence of computers in our world today.

Like all revolutionary technologies, such as electricity, telephones, and auto­mobiles, computers have been em­braced by individuals and organizations rather quickly. Thus, a certain amount of computer literacy is necessary to keep pace with rapid technological advances. Computers, although important, are not an end in themselves. They are simply tools. They are really nothing more than unusually fast and precise machines with an extraordinary ability to remember massive amount of detail. The computer’s specialty is data processing, performing specific operations on data: adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing numbers and comparing them and remembering them. These fundamental operations, conducted in countless combinations at tremendous speed, are the essence of all the computer’s enormously varied applications. The computer can thus answer some highly complex questions, although the human being must tell it what to do and how to do it.

Notes:

Remember that word “data” takes a singular verb (3rd person singular) when it refers to the information operated on in a computer program. – The data is ready for processing.

1.5 Give English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Приймати вхідні дані, виконувати опрацювання, програмне забезпечення, зберігати (запам’ятовувати) команди, надзвичайно швидкі й точні машини, виконання специфічних операцій, основні операції, величезна швидкість, пристрій, вихідні дані, відповідно дo, революційні технології, численні комбінації, порівнювати, застосовувати комп’ютери.

1.6 Match the terms to their definitions.

  1. computer

  2. data

  3. input

  4. output

  5. software

  6. information

  7. instruction

  1. Output, intended for use and interpretation by people.

  2. The facts numbers, letters, and images input to a computer.

  3. An electronic device that can accept input, process it according to a set of instructions, store the instructions and the results of processing, and produce the results as its output.

  4. A basic unit of a program that specifies what action is to be performed on what data.

  5. Programs that control the functions of a computer system.

  6. The results of computer processing.

  7. The process of transferring data into a computer system.

1.7 Answer the questions.

  1. What is a computer?

  2. What do we call facts, numbers, letters, and images input to a computer?

  3. What do we call software?

  4. What do we call the output intended for use and interpretation by people?

  5. In what spheres are computers being used now?

  6. What is the computer’s specialty?

  7. What is the difference between data and information?

    1. Read and translate the following word-combinations.

Increased complexity, business environment, rapid growth, social pressure, business transaction, credit status, financial status, income statement, balance sheet, human effort, office automation technology, two-way cable, repetitive tasks, practical applications, humanlike capabilities, intelligent computer systems, the nature of intelligence, common sense, office automation technology

2.2 Read and learn key words and word –combinations.

accomplish manually – виконувати вручну

artificial intelligence – штучний інтелект

database program – програма бази даних

expert system – експертна система

fax machine – факс

keep track of – слідкувати за

office automation – автоматизація діловодства

production and distribution of information – виробництво і поширення інформації

satellite communication system – система супутникового зв’язку

spreadsheet (n) – електронна таблиця

withhold taxes – утримувати податки

word processing – опрацювання текстів

    1. Read and translate the text.

COMPUTERS IN BUSINESS

Computers are used to help businesses automate the collection and processing of data, and the production and distribu­tion of information. Of course, these tasks can be accomplished manually, but factors such as increased complexity of the business environment, rapid growth, increased competition, the value of information, and even social pressure have encouraged businesses to adopt computers as solutions to many problems.

ACCOUNTING AND BOOKKEEPING One of the earliest applications for com­puters was accounting and bookkeep­ing, activities that are concerned with recording and processing the basic busi­ness transactions of an organization. An order entry system accepts customer orders, checks the customer's credit sta­tus, and verifies that the ordered items are in stock. An accounts receivable sys­tem keeps track of money received or owed by customers. An accounts pay­able system keeps track of money owed to suppliers. In a business that produces goods, an inventory system keeps track of the goods on hand for sale or ship­ment to customers. A payroll system calculates employee pay checks and keeps track of withholding taxes, em­ployee benefits, insurance, and dues. A general ledger system summarizes all of the basic transactions and is used to produce the information concerning the fi­nancial status of the business, such as the chart of accounts, income state­ments, and balance sheets.

Once business transaction have been entered, or input, into the computer and processed, business people can receive the computer’s output or information. Because the computer is such a versatile tool, it can produce information in the form of reports, charts diagrams tables illustrations and videos, all of which help us to interpret and understand a complex and dynamic business environment.

OFFICE AUTOMATION Office automation is technology that reduces the amount of human effort necessary to perform tasks in the office. Today’s businesses have a wide variety of office automation technology at their disposal. The list includes telephones, fax machines, and computers; word pro­cessing, spreadsheet, and database programs; and two-way cable and satellite communication systems. Each of these compo­nents is intended to automate a task or function that is performed manually.

EXPERT SYSTEMS An expert system is a computer system that solves specialized problems at the level of a human expert. Expert systems are a practical application of artificial intelligence (AI), the branch of com­puter science that attempts to (1) un­derstand the nature of intelligence and (2) produce new classes of intelligent computer systems by programming computers to perform tasks that require humanlike qualities, such as reasoning and perception.

In finance and insurance companies, expert systems are applied to granting loans, mortgages, and insurance policies. In these applications, business procedures are usually governed by formal rules, and the expert system can replace some of the tedium of applying the rules.

There is still debate whether comput­ers will ever exhibit intelligence equiva­lent to that of a human being. Certainly, few would argue that computers are good at manipulating data and arith­metic, often exceeding human capabili­ties when solving specific problems in these areas. However, computers that can exhibit intuition, understanding, insight, or common sense are still far in the future.

    1. Give English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Перевищувати здібності людини, здоровий глузд, спеціалізовані проблеми, автоматизація діловодства, ділова операція, утримувати податки, штучний інтелект, у розпорядженні, на рівні, людини, галузь комп’ютерної науки, значення (цінність) інформації, збір даних, продуктивний спосіб, розвиток, виконувати завдання, вирішувати специфічні проблеми

    1. Put the verb into the correct form.

  1. Computers __________ in business since the 1960s. (use)

  2. Scientists __________ still, if computers ____ ever intelligence equivalent to that of a human being. (debate, exhibit)

  3. Accounting and bookkeeping ______with recording and processing the basic business transactions of an organization. (concern)

  4. As a result, office automation ______ the amount of human effort necessary to perform tasks in the office. (reduce)

  5. Increased complexity of the business environment _______ computer application in office automation. (make for)

2.6 Answer the questions.

  1. What factors promoted a wide computer application in businesses?

  2. In what business spheres were computers first applied?

  3. What does the term “office automation” mean?

  4. What components of office automation are at the disposal of today’s businesses?

  5. Are modern computers able to solve any problems at the level of human expert?

  6. In what cases do computers exceed human capabilities?

  7. Can you give the examples of applying expert systems?

3.1 Translate the following word-combinations from English into Ukrainian.

Meet the pressure of competition, the flow of goods, change the structure, computer-based devices, examine a pattern, reduce labour costs, handle customer service, deal with customers, needs and wants, make accessible, apply computers, a human teller, mundane tasks, place more emphasis, eliminate misreading.

3.2 Learn key words and word-combinations.

accessible (adj) - доступний

automatic teller machine (ATM) – банкомат

bar code – штриховий код

collect data – збирати дані

computer screen – екран комп’ютера

computer-based device – автоматизований пристрій

convert (v) - перетворювати

eliminate(v) – усувати

flow/stream of information – потік інформації

information system – інформаційна система

input device – пристрій уведення

leverage technology – використовувати технологію

mundane (adj) - повсякденний

pattern(n) – зразок; зображення; графічний шаблон

point-of-sail system – система для касових розрахунків

reader(n) – пристрій читання

representation(n) – подання; зображення

retrieve(v) – шукати, знаходити

scanner(n) – пристрій сканування; сканер

touch screen – сенсорний екран

  1. Read and translate the text.

COMPUTERS IN RETAILING

Almost all retailing organizations from department stores to supermarkets are extremely competitive. To meet the pressure of competition, retail organiza­tions are changing their structure from being organized around the flow of goods and services to being organized around the flow of information. Com­puters are helping to accomplish that change.

POINT OF SALE SYSTEMS Increasingly, retailers such as depart­ment stores and supermarkets are using computers to collect data about their sales and customers at the point of sale. Point-of-sale systems are computer-based devices located at the point at which goods and services are paid for. Scanners are input devices that exam­ine a pattern such as a bar code and convert it into a representation suitable for processing. Supermarkets have long used scanners at checkout counters to record sales. In such an application, scanners reduce labour costs, make the checkout process more accurate by eliminating misreading of price tags and improper cash register reading, and move customers through the checkout line faster, thus enhancing customer service.

Today, scanners serve as input devices to sophisticated computer systems that identify best-selling products, eliminate the less popular products and subtract the amount of purchase directly from the customer’s bank account.

The nature of customer service is not only changing, but it is becoming an ever more important part of the competitive retailing industry. Not only must a com­pany employ friendly people to handle customer service, but it must also lever­age technology to deal with customers. Computers help companies become more familiar with their customers’ needs and wants.

HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS Hotels and restaurants also use comput­ers to become familiar with their customer’s needs and wants. In hotels, front-desk systems retrieve a guest record when a credit card is passed through a special reader. Some larger hotels keep guest preference profiles on computer. When the guest checks in, everything is ready.

The fast-food industry is beginning to apply computers to the task of improv­ing the preparation, cooking, and deliv­ery of food. Taco Bell is testing a taco-making robot and a touch-screen order­ing system that allow customers to order meals in much the same way that an automatic teller machine lets a bank cus­tomer bypass a human teller. Managers in the fast-food industry believe that au­tomating mundane tasks will free em­ployees to place more emphasis on the customer-service side of the business.

  1. Find synonyms.

Help, change, accomplish, collect, examine, convert, reduce, accurate, faster, talk, determine, begin, allow, alter, gather, permit, speak, transform, check, exact, quicker, cut, start, decide, fulfill, assist.

  1. Put the verb into the correct form.

  1. Point-of-sale systems __ _____ at the point where goods and services _______ .(be located, pay for)

  2. Scanners _______ at checkout counters to record sales. (use)

  3. Computers ________ in fast-food industry. (apply)

  4. A taco-making robot and a touch-screen ordering system _____ by Taco Bell. (test)

  5. A pattern such as a bar code _________ by scanners. (examine)

  1. Answer the questions.

  1. What structural changes are taking place in retailing? Why?

  2. What purposes are retailing organizations using computers for?

  3. What input devices have been long used in supermarkets?

  4. What are the results of scanner application in supermarkets?

  5. What problems are solved with help of the computer in customer service?

  6. What technology is applied in the fast-food industry?

4.1 Translate the following word-combinations from English into Ukrainian.

Graphic tools, a powerful tool, the evolution of printing technology, computerized typesetting, electronic tools, make possible, ancient culture, contemporary culture, high-technology tools, convey meaning, imaginary scenes, realistic images, still frames, the illusion of motion, artificial background, produce high-quality sound, dominant role, generate sound, a condensed description of the composition, three-dimensional colour graphics, virtual-reality research.

4.2 Learn key words and word-combinations.

beep (n)– звуковий сигнал

capture (n) – збирання (даних); (v) - збирати

computer graphics – комп’ютерна графіка

computer-generated – сформований (створений) з допомогою комп’ютера

computerized presentation – комп’ютеризоване зображення

computerized typesetting – комп’ютеризоване складання (тексту)

digital signal – цифровий сигнал

dimension (n)– вимір

display (n)– дисплей; пристрій відображення; зображення; (v) відображати, показувати

edit (v) - редагувати

feedback (n)– зворотній зв’язок

fiber-optic cable – волоконнооптичний кабель

graphics software – прoграмні засоби машинної графіки

hologram (n)– голограма

imaging system – система формування зображення

laser (n)– лазер

LCD(liquid crystal display) – дисплей на рідких кристалах

permutation -перестановка

photocopier (n)– фотокопіювальний пристрій

playback (n)– відтворення

synthesizer (n)– синтезатор

virtual reality – віртуальна реальність/середовище

4.3 Read and translate the text.

COMPUTERS IN THE ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT

Historically, the dubious aesthetic qual­ity of computer-generated images and sounds coupled with the high cost of computer graphic tools had been the primary barrier to widespread adoption of computers by artists and designers. The computer was often a high-priced specialized tool on which the artist or designer rented time or shared time among a group of users.

But for many people, art and design are a business, not a hobby. The most widespread and rapid advances in using computers are in art and design made for commercial purposes. Commercial artists and designers quickly realized that computer technology is a powerful tool that can reduce the cost and time involved in producing the medium in which they work. For example, the evolution of printing technology from movable type to computerized typesetting and imaging systems opened up myriad new cost-effective communication pos­sibilities for graphic designers. Artists and designers view the computer as a new medium that inte­grates print, television, music, and other communication media of the past and present.

For example, presentations at meet­ings were once synonymous with slides and transparencies. The computer was simply a tool used to produce slides and transparencies. Today, complex com­puterized presentations that incorpo­rate sound, animation, and colour, along with still images, are an entirely new form of communication made possible by computer technology.

THE VISUAL MEDIA The visual media, such as print, film, television, and photography, demand visual problem-solving skills. The tools to help solve problems visually can be grouped together under the broad term computer graphics.

ART Computer-assisted art takes many forms. It replaces pen and pencil as the drawing tool, mixes colours by manipulat­ing light on a display screen, and creates many possible permutations of basic forms and shapes. In addition to com­puters, some contemporary artists use high-technology tools such as lasers, holograms, photocopiers, and facsimile machines to help convey meaning or to explore themes related to technology.

FILM AND TELEVISION In science-fiction films and television shows, we are often treated to spectacu­lar images of outer space and dramatic shots of distant worlds. Yet there is no navigation of outer space behind these images, let alone a camera to photo­graph them. Today’s graphic software makes imaginary scenes and realistic images indistinguishable from photo­graphs, yet they exist only as information stored in a computer.

SOUND Sound is a communication medium that expresses ideas in ways that cannot be approached by any of the other arts. In entertainment, sound is essential to music and is an important part of television and film. The ability to produce high-quality sound has always existed in musical in­struments, but only since the invention of the synthesizer have computers played a dominant role in the produc­tion of music.

A synthesizer is a device that elec­tronically generates sound instead of picking it up with a microphone.

When coupled with a sequencer— software that can capture, edit, and play back music—complex electronic ar­rangements are made possible through a wide variety of editing options.

A technology called the musical in­strument digital interface (MIDI) connects synthesizers, musical instru­ments, and computers. The information passed between MIDI devices is not sound. Rather, it is a condensed descrip­tion of the composition (e.g., what notes were played, when, and with what nu­ance). On playback, MIDI controls the creation of sound on a synthesizer. A musician can interact with a composi­tion while it is playing to make changes and enhancements.

In live performances, such as rock concerts, live and recorded sound are often indistinguishable, thanks to the use of computerized backing tracks.

VIRTUAL REALITY Three-dimensional colour graphics, ani­mation, simulations, and special effects combined with sound and tactile input and output create the next major devel­opment in human-computer interfaces, virtual environments.

A virtual reality, also called a virtual environment, is an information environ­ment generated by computer technol­ogy that combines visual, auditory, and tactile interaction to create the illusion of realistic objects and sensory experi­ences.

The most advanced virtual-reality re­search can be found in the defense and aerospace industries. At NASA’s Ames Research Center in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division, sci­entists have created a virtual reality workstation based on a stereo-viewing headset, a microphone, earphones, a head tracking device, and DataGlovesgloves instrumented with fiber-optic cables that convert mechanical motion into digital signals suitable for process­ing. To enter a virtual world the user dons the headset, which contains goggles that display images on small LCDs. The display for each eye is slightly different, creating the illusion of three dimensions. As the user’s head moves, the computer adjusts the view accord­ingly. A user viewing a virtual object would see a different view of the object if, for example, he or she walked around to see the other side. The DataGloves permit the user to pick up and manipu­late virtual objects.

The most advanced virtual reality is found in entertainment. Large-scale arcade games now utilize headsets to immerse the players in artificial worlds where they virtually become part of the action.

4.4 Find antonyms.

High, primary, hobby, rapid, reduce, forbid, impossible, simple, exclude, low, minor, business, slow, real, difficult, complicate, cheap, a lot of, raise, imaginary, outer, create, open, few, complex, ancient, destroy, realistic, inner, expensive, begin, artificial, simplify, contemporary, end, close, easy, include, possible, permit.

4.5. Find synonyms.

Couple, rapid, powerful, evolution, convert, exact, assist, include, dear, begin, fast, broad, replace, generate, modern, research, change, expensive, development, help, fully, multiple, traditional, combine, transform, incorporate, explore, start, numerous, produce, wide, permutation, completely, conventional, mighty, contemporary, precise, substitute.

4.6 Make up sentences using the following words.

  1. ancient, artists, have, images, in, always, cultures, created, even.

  2. many, takes, art, forms, computer-assisted.

  3. modern, tools, addition, computers, in, to, some, high-technology, use, some, artists.

  4. commercial, realize, computer, is, their, technology, in, artists, that, contemporary, work, necessary.

4.7 Put the verb into the correct form.

  1. High-technology tools such as lasers, holograms, photocopiers _____ by contemporary artists.(use)

  2. Printing technology ______ by computer typesetting. (replace)

  3. Imaging scenes and realistic images ______ with help of graphic software. (make)

  4. The creation of sound on a synthesizer _______ by MIDI. (control)

  5. Synthesizers, musical instruments and computers ____ with help of the technology called MIDI. (connect)

  6. Computers ______ a dominant role in the production of music only since the advent of the synthesizer. (play)

4.8 Answer the questions.

  1. In what sphere of art are the most widespread and rapid advances in using computers? Why?

  2. What high-technology tools, in addition to computers, are used by some contemporary artists?

  3. In what way has a computer application influenced the film industry?

  4. What changes have taken place in the production of music since the invention of the synthesizer?

  5. What do we call a technology connecting synthesizers, musical instruments and computers?

  6. In what spheres can virtual reality be applied except the defense and aerospace industries?

5.1 Read and translate the following word-combinations.

Powerful assistants, imaginative approach, information gathering and learning, computer-assisted instruction, language skills, curriculum developer, similar problems, basic skills, drill and practice, individual instruction, interactive education, sequential and linear, create multiple paths, dynamic types of data, multimedia products, learning embedded into games, the entire range of education, skill-training material.

5.2 Learn key words and word combinations.

CAI (computer –assisted instruction) – комп’ютеризоване навчання

computation (n)– обчислення

direct link – прямий зв’язок

embed (v)– вкладати, уставляти

flash card – проекційна картка

hypertext (n)– гіпертекст (унівеpсальний текст)

imaginative approach – творчий підхід

interactive (adj)– інтерактивний, діалоговий

multimedia (n)– комплексне зображення середовища; мультисередовище

nonlinear (adj)– нелінійний

option (n)– варіант; версія; можливість, вибір, режим; пункт меню

sequential (adj)– послідовний

    1. Read and translate the text.

COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION

INTERACTIVE EDUCATION Learning can occur without computers, or, for that matter, without pencil and paper. But computers can serve as pow­erful assistants that allow imaginative approaches to teaching traditional sub­jects and motivate teachers and students to try new ways of information gathering and learning.
The oldest instructional application of computers is computer-assisted instruction (CAI), which provides in­struction and drill and practice in basic computation and language skills. The basic philosophy of CAI involves a direct link between student and computer and the transfer of basic instructional deci­sions from teacher to curriculum developer.

By using CAI, information is pre­sented on a computer, students are asked to respond, and their responses are evaluated. If the student is correct, he or she moves on; if incorrect, similar problems are given until the correct re­sponse is elicited. CAI allows students to learn topics at their own pace through a series of computer displays.

MULTIMEDIA Now, rapidly evolving computer tech­nologies are creating more options for interactive education. The term hypertext was coined in 1965 by com­puter populist Ted Nelson. Hypertext describes writing done in nonlinear fash­ion. Unlike print text, which is essentially sequential and linear, hypertext can link pieces of information and create mul­tiple paths through text. When the non­linear text, along with still photos and illustrations, is combined with dynamic types of data such as sound, animation, and video, it is called multimedia.

Whereas CAI often stresses meeting specific needs, such as reading, spelling, math, or science, by asking students to answer questions correctly, multimedia products often feature games with learn­ing embedded into them. Students are provided with clues that require a knowledge of history, science, or geog­raphy to solve problems.

Multimedia products now span the entire range of education from pre­school to higher education to in-house corporate training. Interactive titles in­clude storybooks for children, math and science games, reference encyclopedias, and various levels of skill-training mate­rial ranging from maintenance and me­chanics to anatomy and medicine.

    1. Find antonyms.

Allow, respond, opponent, difficult, link, powerful, old, similar, create, weak, wrong, modern, destroy, break, still, advocate, ask ,correct, different, easy, dynamic, forbid.

    1. Find synonyms.

S pan, occur, permit, collect, answer, right, for instance, different, entire, connection, allow, gather, link, personal, embrace, take place, estimate, whole, various, for example, correct, individual, respond, evaluate.

    1. Translate into English the following word-combinations.

Визначити ефективність комп’ютеризованого навчання, динамічні типи даних, задовольняти специфічні потреби, забезпечити індивідуальне навчання, подібні проблеми, мовні навички, включати прямий зв’язок, нові способи збору і вивчення інформації.

    1. Translate from Ukrainian into English.

  1. Засоби мультимедіа дають людині змогу спілкуватися з комп’ютером, використовуючи звук, відео, графіку, тексти, анімацію та ін.

  2. Мультимедіа-комп’ютери особливо привабливі для навчання.

  3. В поєднанні з гіпертекстовою та гіпермедійною формою навчальної інформації навчальний процес стає ефективним.

  4. Прихильники комп’ютеризованого навчання доводять, що засоби мультимедіа забезпечують багате середовище для навчання і дослідження

  5. Засоби мультимедіа дають вчителям можливість звертатися до різних методик навчання, використовуючи одну технологію.

    1. Answer the questions.

  1. What is the basic philosophy of CAI?

  2. What are the computer capabilities in CAI?

  3. What are the pros and cons in applying computers in education?

  4. New computer technologies are creating more options for interactive education, aren’t they?

  5. What range of education do multimedia products span?

  6. Is classroom instruction more effective than computer-based training?

  7. Are teachers more valuable then computers?

Match the following key terms to the appropriate definition:

  1. Computer

  2. Data

  3. Computer program

  4. Information

  5. Office automation

  6. Expert system

  7. Artificial intelligence

  8. Point-of-sale system

  9. Scanner

  10. Synthesizer

  11. Virtual reality

  12. Simulation

  1. Computer input devices located at the point at which goods and services are paid.

  2. An electronic device that can accept input, process it according to a set of instructions, store the instructions and the results of processing, and produce results as its output.

  3. A device that electronically generates sound instead of picking it up with a microphone.

  4. Technology that reduces the amount of human effort necessary to perform tasks in the office.

  5. Output, intended for use and interpretation by people.

  6. The facts, numbers, letters, and images input to a com­puter.

  7. A computer system that solves specialized problems at the level of a human expert.

  8. Input devices that examine a pattern such as a bar code and convert it into a representation suitable for process­ing.

  9. Instructions that carry out the processing.

  10. The branch of computer science that attempts to under­stand the nature of intelligence and produce new classes of intelligent computer systems.

  11. A computerized representation of a real-world event or series of actions.

l. An information environment generated by computer technology that combines visual, auditory, and tactile interaction to create the illusion of realistic objects and sensory experiences.

Unit 2

Anatomy of computers

  1. Read and translate the following words and word – combinations.

Aboard the space shuttle, a close cousin, adapt, any other way, a permanent set of instructions, appropriate program, computational power, diagnostic equipment, embedded, in appearance, in effect, low on gas, outpace, sophisticated military aircraft, technical application, traffic signal.

    1. Learn key words and word-combinations.

general-purpose computer - універсальна ЕОМ, універсальний комп’ютер

mainframe (n)- універсальний комп'ютер

minicomputer (n)- мінікомп'ютер

preprogram (v) - запрограмувати

programmable (adj) - програмований

scramble(v)- змішувати, шифрувати

share a computer - спільно користуватися комп'ютером

special-purpose computer-комп'ютер спеціального призначення

supercomputer (n)- суперкомп'ютер

unscramble (v)- розшифровувати

workstation (n)- робоча станція

    1. Read the text and discuss the types of computers.

TYPES OF COMPUTERS

The broadest categories of computers are special purpose and general purpose.

Special-purpose computers are dedicated to only one function: control­ling the machines in which they are em­bedded . They have been given a perma­nent set of instructions. In effect, they have been preprogrammed to perform their specific purpose.

For example, tiny, hidden special-purpose computers control traffic signals, and inject fuel into your car's engine as you drive. Not all special-purpose computers are small. The navigational computers aboard the space shuttle, the computers found in sophisticated military aircraft, and those found in medical diagnostic equipment are typical examples of me­dium- to large-scale special-purpose computers.

General-purpose computers differ from their special-purpose cousins by being programmable; that is, their operation can be changed by altering the instructions or programs they are given. They can be adapted to many situations if given ap­propriate programs.

Some general-purpose computers, known as personal computers, are de­signed for use by individuals, such as students, office workers, and executives. Some are even small enough to carry around in your pocket or purse. A close cousin of the personal computer is called a workstation. Although it re­sembles a personal computer in appear­ance, it is used by scientists and engi­neers for technical applications that re­quire more computational power. Much larger and far more expensive comput­ers, called mainframes, are designed to process large amounts of data and to be shared by many different people in busi­nesses, government agencies, and scien­tific and educational institutions. The fastest computers made are called supercomputers. They are used for weather prediction, computer anima­tion, and scientific research. Their perfor­mance far outpaces that of even the larg­est and most powerful mainframe com­puters.

    1. Give English equivalents.

Вбудований, перепрограмувати, постійний набір команд, розкодовувати програми, медичне діагностичне обладнання, відповідна програма, робоча станція, комп’ютер загального призначення, технічне застосування, опрацьовувати велику кількість даних, швидкодія комп’ютера, обчислювальна потужність.

    1. Give the definition of the following terms in English.

General-purpose computer, mainframe, personal computer, special-purpose computer, supercomputer, workstation.

    1. Translate into English the following word-combinations forming compound nouns.

Космічний корабель, назва торгової марки, конторські службовці, державні агенції(заклади), прогнозування погоди, комп’ютерна анімація, робоча станція.

    1. Translate into English .

  1. Офісні ПК орієнтовані на автоматизацію конторської праці: редагування листів, ведення бази даних, ділового листування, роботу з графічною інформацією та інше.

  2. Комп’ютери спеціального призначення виконують тільки одну функцію.

  3. Комп’ютери спеціального призначення бувають малого, середнього та великого розміру.

  4. Комп’ютери загального призначення відрізняються від комп’ютерів спеціального призначення тим, що їх можна перепрограмувати.

  5. Універсальні ЕОМ використовуються для виконання складних розрахунків.

    1. Answer the questions.

  1. What are the broadest categories of computers?

  2. What functions can special-purpose computers perform?

  3. What is the main difference between special-purpose and general-purpose computers?

  4. What types of general-purpose computers do you know?

  5. What are general-purpose computers designed for?

  6. In what spheres are general-purpose computers applied?

2.1 Read and translate the text. Write out computer terms.

computer programs and computing concepts

The vast majority of today's computer users buy ready-made programs. One such program, a spreadsheet pro­gram, enables you to organize numbers and formulas into rows and columns of cells, similar to the paper spreadsheets that have been used in businesses for years. For example, if you are having a problem balancing your household bud­get, you can use a spreadsheet to type in the numbers and formulas for a monthly budget. Then, you can change the num­bers or formulas to see how different budgets might affect your personal fi­nances. All the calculating is accom­plished by the spreadsheet. You can con­centrate on exploring solutions to the problem.

. Writing a program means creating a set of instructions that the computer can follow. For the computer to understand you, the instructions must be written in a programming language. A programming language is a formally constructed artificial language in which the vocabulary and grammar rules are stated so precisely that a com­puter can analyze, interpret, and under­stand the meaning of that language. All programming languages include a vocabulary—the set of words used to make instructions—and a grammar or syntax - a precise set of rules that deter­mines the set of possible instructions in the language. Writing a program can be an intellectually demanding task. You must first map out exactly what you want the program to do, apply some commonsense rules of logic, be willing to follow a problem from its conception to completion, and pay attention to many details.

Experienced computer users often speak a different language. In a field of study such as computers, it is easy to become overwhelmed with new words that represent new concepts and ideas.

This set of specialized words, called jargon, is used to speed up communication between people. Jargon is used by all professional people. It is a shortcut they use to communicate effectively with their colleagues.

2.2 Give English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Рівень знань, текстовий процесор, готова програма, електронна таблиця, комп’ютерна грамотність, розуміння комп’ютерів, пересічний користувач, принципи і поняття, комірка ( чарунка ), набір команд, приділяти увагу, програміст, пакет програмних засобів, мова програмування, штучна мова, писати (розробляти) програми

3.1 Translate the following word and phrases into Ukrainian.

A series of letters, binary system, coded information, convey information, expand the potential of computer capability, information processing, integrated circuits, in the form of a code, key concept, level of voltage, long and short switch closings, power source, pulses of electric current, stem from, via.

3. 2 Learn key words and word-combinations.

acquire (v) – збирати (дані)

binary signal - двійковий сигнал

binary system - двійкова система

carrier of information - носій інформації

convert (v)- перетворювати

dots and dashes- крапки і тире

electric current (n) - електричний струм

electric signal (n)- електричний сигнал

information processing –обробка інформації

integrated circuit – інтегральна схема

manipulate information (v)- керувати інформацією

power source- джерело енергії

processor (n) – процесор

pulse (n)- імпульс

set of symbols - набір символів

storage – пам’ять; запам’ятовуючий пристрій; накопичувач

subfunction (n)- підфункція

switch (n)- перемикач

subsystem (n)- підсистема

transform (v)- перетворювати

transmit (v)- передавати

voltage (n)- напруга

wire (n)- дріт, провід.

  1. Read and translate the text.

SYSTEMS. INFORMATION. CODES

A computer is a system. It is a set of parts or subsystems. The main sub­systems are input, output, processor, and storage. Each subsystem performs a specific subfunction, and the sub­systems work together to perform infor­mation processingacquiring, storing, and manipulating information and com­municating the results.

Information is data that has a context. This concept is useful because the context helps us to make decisions and solve problems us­ing data and information. Data are simply facts, numbers, let­ters, or symbols, whereas information always has a context. A simple example illustrates this. If I were to hand you a piece of paper with the letter A written on it, what have I given you? A piece of data—and rather raw data at that. If I hand you the same piece of paper and tell you that it is your grade for this course, that is information.

As a practical matter, the speed, reli­ability, and usefulness of computers par­tially stem from the fact that data and information can easily be represented as electrical signals. This was first demon­strated by the early telegraph. At the transmitter end, a telegrapher would transform a series of letters in the alphabet into pulses of electric current by a pattern of long and short switch clos­ings. At the receiving end, the pulses of electric current were converted into a series of clicks that a human receiver could translate back into letters of the alphabet.

One of the key concepts in this pro­cess is the idea of a code. A code is a set of symbols, such as the dots and dashes of the Morse code, that repre­sents another set of symbols, such as the letters of the alphabet.

A circuit is required for electricity to work as a carrier of information.. A circuit is an interconnected set of electronic components that performs a function. A circuit can be as simply as a switch, a light bulb, and some wire, but computers need far more complex cir­cuits. The circuits used in computers are called integrated circuits—combina­tions of millions circuits built on tiny pieces of silicon that are called chips.

The porch light as a signal can dem­onstrate the idea of a binary signal. Ei­ther there is current flowing and the light is on, or there is no current flowing and the light is off. In a computer circuit, the on-and-off combinations are repre­sented by two different levels of voltage. The first (usually the higher) level of voltage is said to be on, whereas the second level of voltage is said to be off.

This on-and-off pattern is the basic building block for the coding of all pat­terns of information used in computer and communication systems. The pat­tern is often referred to as the binary system. By combining binary and digit (for the digits 0 and 1 used in the binary system), we derive the term bit. A bit is the smallest possible unit of information because one bit is enough to tell the difference between two alternatives, such as on or off. Bits are the means by which the data that flow through the circuits of a com­puter are represented. Groups of bits can be arranged to represent numbers, letters, and special symbols in the form of a code.

  1. Find antonyms.

Input, transmitter, useful, receiver, early, coded, familiar, different, together, difficult, more, late, output, separately, similar, simple, unfamiliar, complex, useless, less, give, encoded, take, easy.

  1. Find synonyms.

Main, speak, convey, demonstrate, transform, chief, sender, send, use, perform, tell, do, complex, convert, remember, unite, show, recollect, sophisticated, combine, transmitter, apply.

3.6 Give the definition of the following terms.

Bit, data, code, circuit, integrated circuit, information

3.7 Find the equivalents of the following words and phrases in the text.

Мовою даних, вирішувати проблеми, виходити з ( факту ), ключове поняття, набір символів, носій інформації, складна схема, двійкова система, закодована інформація, в ширшому розумінні, імпульси електроструму, представляти набір символів, набір електронних складових, незалежно від, прискорити спілкування, фізичний розмір, розширювати можливості (потенціал ), електричний сигнал, рівень напруги, передавати, приймач, можливості комп’ютера.

3.8 Answer the questions.

  1. What is the difference between data and information?

  2. What do the speed, reliability and usefulness of computers stem from?

  3. What is a code?

  4. What is a circuit?

  5. What do we call the circuits used in computers?

  6. What is a chip?

  7. Explain the idea of a binary signal.

4.1 Read the text and translate it. Write out the computer terms and learn them.

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

An information system is a system that takes data, stores and processes it, and provides information as output. No study of computers would be com­plete without including communication systems. Information systems and com­munication systems are closely related. Communication is the transfer of mean­ingful information.

In its simplest form, a communica­tion system consists of a sender (the technical term for sender is transmitter), a channel over which to send the infor­mation, and a receiver.

Communication is most important in the study of computers because infor­mation (like people) is widely distrib­uted in the world.

Network is the term that is used to describe at least two but usually more communication devices connected to each other. There are two common cat­egories of networks with which every­one is familiar. The first category is a network that broadcasts information from a single source. Radio and televi­sion networks are an example: a group of stations are linked together so that the same programs can be carried to a wider audience.

The second category is a network that transfers information among many sources. A telephone system is the prime example: the focus is input oriented— that is—switching messages from one location to another.

Hardware is the physical equipment in a computer system. Software tells the hardware what to do. Software is the term used to describe the programs that control the operation of the com­puter system. The words "software" and "program" are used interchangeably.

Applications are the things computers can be used to do. The following list of applications shows the rapid evolution of computer use today.

4.2 Give the definition of the following terms.

Information system, communication system, hardware, software, application

  1. Read and translate the following words and phrases.

Electronically, enter commands, general-purpose keys, number intensive date entry, a set of function keys, technological breakthroughs, a pattern of dots, high resolution pattern, graphic images, a feasible alternative, choose options, alternative input device, depending on, give feedback, the computer’s output, a physical connector, electrically charged drum, an external device.

    1. Key words and word-combinations:

arrow key - клавіша керування курсором

CRT (cathode ray tube) - електронно-променева трубка

cursor (n) – курсор

display/monitor (n) - монітор

dot-matrix printer - матричний принтер

drum (n) – барабан

expansion slot - гніздо розширення

feedback (n) – зворотній зв’язок

flat screen - плоский екран

function key – функціональна клавіша

high resolution - висока роздільна здатність

in lieu – замість

keyboard (n)- клавіатура

keystroke(n) - натискання на клавішу

layout (n)- розміщення

letterhead (n) – друкований фірмовий бланк

LCD (liquid crystal display) - дисплей на рідких кристалах

nozzle (n)- сопло

numeric keypad - цифрова клавіатура

pointing device – пристрій керування позицією

port (n)- порт

ribbon (n)- стрічка

spray ink - розбризкувати чорнило

trackball- кульовий маніпулятор – вказівник; трекбол

    1. Read and translate the text.

Personal computer systems. Keyboard, display and printers

A keyboard is a device that converts keystrokes into codes that can be elec­tronically manipulated by the computer. A personal computer keyboard includes a typewriter layout and a set of keys marked with arrows that control the movement of a visual aid—a cursor—on the display screen. Keyboards include a numeric keypad for number-intensive data entry and calcula­tions as well as a set of function keys. Keyboards are not the only way to communicate with a computer. Touch­ing the screen with your finger, talking to a computer, writing with an electronic pen, and rolling a mouse or trackball are all alternative input devices.

A mouse is a pointing device that combines the traditional cursor move­ments—accomplished by pressing ar­row keys—with the means to select an object on the display screen. Buttons located on the top of the mouse enable you to choose options. Rolling the trackball with your fingertips produces the same results as moving the mouse.

A display, often called a monitor, is one of the output parts of the system. A display is a device that is used (1) to give you feedback while you operate the computer and (2) to view the computer's output. For example, when you type on the keyboard, the letters are immediately displayed along with the cursor that indicates where the next let­ter you type will appear.

The popular displaуs are CRTs (cathode ray tube), LCDs (liquid crystal displays), and plasma display panels. It is necessary to not that CRTs are being replaced by LCDs.

A printer is a device that produces pa­per-copy output from a computer sys­tem. Printers accept con­tinuous-form paper and single sheets, such as letterhead.

. One way to classify printers is by the method used to form the printed images. Dot-matrix printers form char­acters with a pattern of dots. This method can include striking a ribbon with a hammer, spraying ink with a nozzle, or transferring the pattern with heat or a laser. The quality of the output from such printers ranges from a very rough and highly visible grainy pattern of dots to an extremely fine high-resolution pattern. The former is quite adequate for printing drafts of documents; the latter is more desirable for printing graphic im­ages.

Laser printers create images with a laser beam scanning across an electri­cally charged drum. As in a copier, toner or ink with an opposite charge sticks to the drum and is then transferred to pa­per by pressure and heat to create the finished image. Laser printers offer higher speed and quality than conven­tional printers. They can mix type styles and sizes as well as graphic images on the same page.

Printers for personal computers are connected to the computer by a cable through a port—the location through which the computer exchanges informa­tion with an external device. A port has a physical connector and an address, so that programs know where to send in­formation. The two basic types of ports are serial and parallel.

5.4 Give synonyms.

Convert, choose, indicate, view, private, command, commonly, traditional, broad, achievement, conventional, special, display, monitor, perform, do, see, mark, situate, generally, wide, select, breakthrough, form, instruction, create, personal, link, determine, general, connect, define, send, locate, convey.

  1. Give antonyms.

Include, break, fine, narrow, create, small, output, desirable, input, hide, latter, wide, destroy, difference, exclude, find, combine, separate, rough, large, similarity, former, link, undesirable.

5.6 Give English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations .

Вводити команду, традиційний, функціональна клавіша, цифровий годинник, протилежний заряд, досягнення (прорив), введення числових даних, спілкуватися з комп’ютером, вибирати режим (варіант), екран дисплея, працювати на комп’ютері, давати зворотній зв’язок, альтернативний пристрій, реальна альтернатива, барвник, грубий, якісний, створювати зображення, зовнішній пристрій, обмінюватися інформацією, системна плата, сопло, з’єднувач, електронна плата, висока роздільна здатність, традиційний принтер, портативний комп’ютер, графічне зображення.

    1. Translate the following sentences into English.

  1. Клавіатура – це пристрій, призначений для введення в комп’ютер інформації та команд керування.

  2. Група цифрових клавіш призначена для введення чисел.

  3. Клавіші зі стрілками керують пересуванням курсору по екрану монітора.

  4. Принтер – це пристрій, призначений для виведення на твердий носій, здебільшого на папір, результатів роботи програм.

  5. Принтери під’єднуються до комп’ютера за допомогою кабелю через порт.

5.8 Answer the questions.

1. What is a keyboard designed for?

2. When do you use a numeric keypad?

4. What is a printer?

5. In what way are printers classified?

6. What type of printers is the best? Why?

7. How are printers connected to the computer?

6.1 Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

Make up, contribute to, link together, integrated circuit chips, the microprocessor chip, systems and subsystems, compatible with, in close conjunctions with, erase, start up the computer, be fed with, low-voltage direct current, magnetic method, retrieve information, large-capacity storage device, provide fast access to, flexible plastic, a track, mount, house, empty, load a program.

    1. Learn key words and word combinations:

backup (n)- резервна копія

byte(n) - байт

capacity(n) - ємність

compatible (adj )– сумісний

CPU (central processing unit) - центральний процесор

DIMM (double in-line memory module) - модуль з дворядним розміщенням мікросхем пам'яті

disk drive – дисковод

erase (v) – стирати; вилучати

execute instructions - виконувати команди

fiberglass (adj) – оптично волоконний

floppy disk - дискета

floppy disk drive - дисковод для гнучких дисків

hard disk - жорсткий диск

house (v) – містити

load a program - завантажувати програму

low-voltage direct current - постійний струм низької напруги

memory (n) - пам'ять

optical disk - оптичний диск

permanent memory - постійна пам'ять

power supply - джерело енергії

RAM (random-access memory) - оперативна пам'ять

ROM (read-only memory) - постійна пам'ять

rotate(v) - обертати

set of tracks - набір доріжок

socket(n) - гніздо; панель

spin (v) - обертати

system unit - системний блок

temporary memory - тимчасова пам'ять (оперативна)

6.3Read and translate the text.

THE SYSTEM UNIT

A system unit houses the processor and memory of a personal computer system. The fun­damental building blocks of all com­puter systems and subsystems are the in­tegrated circuit chips. All the functional hardware parts of the computer—input, processor, storage, and output—can be made from integrated circuits.

One of the most important integrated circuits chips is the central processing unit (CPU) Working in close conjunction with the processor is a form of storage called the computer's memory. This is where the programs, along with the data to be input and the results to be output, are stored.

ROM (read-only memory) is per­manent memory from which the ­processor can read information, but whose contents can be neither erased nor written over—thus the name, read­ only memory. ROM stores the instruc­tions that start up the computer when the power is turned on as well as some additional programs that need never be changed.

RAM (random-access memory) is temporary memory that is empty until the processor needs to use it, that is, until it loads programs and data into it. RAM is often called read/write memory, meaning that the processor can read its contents and write programs or data into it. Most RAM is temporary be­cause it loses its contents when the computer's power is turned off.

Memories for personal computers are rated according to their capacity, which is measured in millions of bytes. A byte consists of eight consecu­tive bits and is the equivalent of one character, such as a letter, a number, or a punctuation mark. One thousand bytes, called a kilobyte or simply K, represents the number 1024. One million bytes or a megabyte represents the number 1 048 576.

By themselves, the chips cannot do much—they have to be connected and fed with electricity. The chips are usually mounted on a system board or mother board—a fibreglass circuit board that contains sockets into which the chips are plugged and a set of tracks (printed on the circuit board) that connects the various chips. Because these tiny inte­grated circuit chips require so little elec­tricity to operate, a power supply is also housed in the system unit. This converts ordinary household current into the low-voltage direct current that the inte­grated circuits require.

Personal computers also con­tain a series of sockets, called expansion slots, into which additional circuit cards can be plugged. These additional circuit cards expand the capabilities of the computer.

Storage provides a place to store data and programs before and after processing. Disks have become the most widely used medium for the storage part of a system. They provide fast access to information.

    1. Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following word – combinations.

Permanent memory, temporary memory, system board, disk drive ,expansion slot, DIMM, hard disk drive, floppy disk drive, colour display screen, capacity, external device, retrieve information, record information, read/write head, erase, delete, rotate a disk.

6.4 Give synonyms.

Make up, private, link, various, important, significant, carry out, quantity, command, perform, interpret, spin, translate, execute, personal, additional, provide, give, apply, use, join, in lieu, convenient, compose, low, instruction, comfortable, different, amount, rotate, flexible, hard, require, supplementary, demand, instead of, high.

    1. Fill in the blanks with the words from the text.

  1. Additional circuit boards can be plugged into _________________.

  2. A system board contains sockets into which _______________________are plugged.

  3. ______________ carries out the processing tasks by interpreting and executing the commands in a program.

  4. ________________ is used for storing large quantities of information and provides fast access to that information.

  5. The capacity of hard disk drives is measured in _______________.

  6. Additional circuit boards expand the ______________ of a computer.

6. 6 Translate the following words and phrases into English.

Cистемний блок, розділовий знак, змінний струм, постійний струм низької напруги, дисковод, резервна копія, запам’ятовувальний пристрій великої ємності, головка читання / запису, лазерний промінь, інтегральна схема, мікросхема, центральний процесор, оперативна пам’ять, тимчасова пам’ять, гніздо розширення, джерело електроживлення, розміщувати, зовнішній пристрій, забезпечувати доступ, вилучати, ємність, з’єднувати з системою, завантажувати програму.

    1. Translate the sentences into English using the necessary terms from the text

  1. Блок електроживлення перетворює змінний струм стандартної мережі на постійний струм низької напруги.

  2. На системному блоці розміщено всі основні вузли комп’ютера.

  3. Дисковод містить механічне обладнання, необхідне для обертання диску та головку читання / запису.

  4. Ємність пам’яті вимірюється у байтах.

6. 8 As we have seen there are three types of memory used by computers: RAM, ROM and storage memory. Look through this list of features and decide which type of memory they refer to.

  1. Any section of the main memory can be read with equal speed and ease.

  2. It is available in magnetic, optical, and video disks.

  3. It stores basic operating instructions, needed by the CPU to function correctly.

  4. Memory which can be expanded by adding DIMMs.

  5. Information is permanent and cannot be deleted.

  6. You can store your documents and applications.

6.9 Answer the questions.

  1. What does a system unit house?

  2. What functions does a CPU perform?

  3. What is a difference between ROM and RAM?

  4. What is a typical unit to measure RAM memory and storage memory?

  5. What type of electrical current is required for feeding chips?

  6. In what way can you expand the capabilities of the computer?

  7. What is the meaning of the acronym DIMM?

  8. What is the abbreviation for “binary digit”?

  9. How can we store data and programs permanently?

TEST YOURSELF

Match the following key terms to the appropriate definition:

A.

  1. Special-purpose computer

  2. General-purpose computer

  3. Computer literacy

  4. Documentation

  5. Tutorial

  6. Spreadsheet

  7. Programming language

  8. System

  9. Code

  10. Circuit

  11. Integrated circuit

  1. The books and manuals that accompany a computer-related product.

  2. A computer whose operation can be changed by altering its programs.

  3. An interconnected set of electronic components that performs a function.

  4. A formally constructed artificial language in which the syntax and grammar are stated so precisely that a computer can analyze, interpret, and understand the meaning of that language.

  5. A computer that is dedicated to a single purpose.

  6. The knowledge and skills required to use a computer as a problem-solving tool.

  7. A ready-made program that enables you to organize num­bers and formulas into a rectangular array of cells.

  8. A computer program that contains step-by-step directions for learning how to use a computer or a computer program.

  9. A set or arrangement of parts acting together to perform a function.

  10. Combinations of thousands of circuits built on tiny pieces of silicon, which are called chips.

  11. A set of symbols that represents another set of symbols.

B.

  1. Bit

  1. Information system

  1. Communication system

  2. Network

  3. Hardware

  4. Software

  5. Applications

  6. Keyboard

  7. Mouse

  8. Microprocessor

    1. A pointing device that combines the traditional cursor movements with the means to select an object on the display.

    2. The smallest unit of information used in computer and communication systems.

    3. The things computers can do.

    4. Two or more communicating devices that are con­nected to each other.

    5. A device that converts keystrokes into special codes that can be electronically manipulated by the computer.

    6. The physical components of a computer or other system.

    7. The central processing unit of a microcomputer.

    8. A system that consists of a sender, a physical channel, and a receiver.

    9. A system that takes input, processes it, and produces infor­mation as output.

    10. Programs that control the operation of a computer system .

C.

      1. Display

      2. Memory

      3. ROM (read-only memory)

      4. RAM (random-access memory)

      5. Byte

      6. System board

      7. Expansion slot

      8. Disk

      9. Printer

      10. Port

        1. A form of storage where programs, data to be input, and results to be output are stored.

        2. The location through which the computer exchanges information with an external device.

        3. A device that produces output from a computer system by transferring an image onto paper.

        4. Eight consecutive bits that are the equivalent of one character.

        5. A device that is used to give you feedback and to view the computer's output.

        6. A circular platter on which a recording surface has been applied.

        7. A socket into which additional circuit boards can be plugged.

        8. Temporary memory that is empty until the microproces­sor needs to use it, that is, until it loads programs and data into it.

        9. A fibreglass circuit board that contains sockets into which chips are plugged and tracks that connect the various chips.

        10. Permanent memory from which the microprocessor can read information, but whose contents can be neither erased nor written over.

True/False:

          1. The fastest computers made are called supercomputers.

          2. The broadest categories of computers are personal computers and mainframes.

          3. Special-purpose computers can be adapted to many situations by giving them an appropriate program.

          4. Learning how to program is a requirement for using a computer as a problem-solving tool.

          5. A programming language is a formally con­structed artificial language.

          6. Writing a program is an intellectually simple task.

          7. One of the problems with computers is that informa­tion cannot be represented as electrical signals.

          8. A binary signal combines the three possibilities of yes, no, and maybe.

          9. A telephone system is an example of a network that processes centralized output.

          10. The two types of disks are magnetic and optical.

Multiple Choice:

42. The broadest categories of com­puters are called

    1. Special and general purpose.

    2. Mainframes, minicomputers, and personal computers.

    3. Supercomputers and minicom­puters.

    4. None of the above.

43. Large-scale general-purpose computers are called

    1. Supercomputers.

    2. Mainframes.

    3. Minicomputers.

    4. Personal computers.

  1. Ready-made programs such as spreadsheets

    1. Help you to learn programming.

    2. Help your reading about computers.

    3. Are tutorials that help you to learn about computers.

    4. Help you to concentrate on solving problems.

    5. Translate a highly specialized and complex computer termi­nology into an easy-to-learn language.

  1. A bit is the smallest possible unit of information because a bit

    1. Can be represented by two different levels of voltage in a computer circuit.

    2. Is enough to tell the difference between two opposites, such as on and off.

    3. Can be grouped with other bits to represent numbers, letters, or special symbols.

    4. Is any pattern that has a com­monly understood meaning.

  1. The difference between data and information is that

    1. Data always contain informa­tion.

    2. Data have a context; informa­tion may not.

    3. Information has a context; data may not.

    4. Information and data are the same thing.

  1. An example of a network that processes decentralized input is

    1. A television network.

    2. An airline reservation system.

    3. A telephone system.

    4. An electronic encyclopaedia.

  2. In a personal computer, the CPU is called the

    1. RAM.

    2. Microcomputer.

    3. Processor.

    4. Motherboard

Unit 3

PERSONAL COMPUTER

  1. Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

System software, application software, interact, a combination of two types of interface, a list of choices, a word-processing program, a menu of numbered choices, available menus, pictures and graphic symbols, a trash can, a method for dividing, variable-sized rectangles, at the same time.

    1. Learn key words and word-combinations.

argument (n) – аргумент

command-driven interface – командно-керований інтерфейс

command-line interface – інтерфейс командних рядків

execute (v) - виконувати

file folder – каталог файлів

graphical user interface (GUI) – графічний інтерфейс користувача

icon (n)– піктограма

menu-driven interface – інтерфейс, керований через меню

menu bar – рядок меню

pop-up menu – спливаюче меню

prompt (v) – підказувати

provide feedback – забезпечувати зворотній зв’язок

pull-down menu –низхідне меню

request (v) – просити

user interface – інтерфейс користувача

window (n) – вікно

word-processing program – програма опрацювання текстів

WIMP (Window Icons Menus Pointers) – інтерфейс екранних вікон

    1. Read and translate the text.

TYPES OF SOFTWARE

The broadest classifica­tions of software are system software and application software. System software includes

When using personal computer soft­ware, you interact with the user inter­face—the software that is responsible for passing information to and from the person using a program. The purpose of a user interface is to enable you to communicate with and control the computer. It takes your re­quests and distributes them to other parts of the program that perform the actual processing tasks. It also provides feedback to you while the software is running and provides output from the results of the processing tasks.

User interfaces differ in the way you give them commands. Interacting with software can be accomplished with a command-driven, menu-driven, or graphical interface, or a combination of two or more types of interfaces.

Command-driven interfaces re­quest or prompt you to type in a single letter, word, or line that is then trans­lated into an instruction for the program to follow. The typical command begins with a verb, such as COPY. The verb is followed by one or more words called arguments that specify in more detail what the command is to accomplish. For example, in the operating system command COPY OLDDATA NEWDATA, COPY is the verb, and the arguments are two file names separated by a space. When the command is executed, it cop­ies the data in the file named OLDDATA to the file named NEWDATA.

Menu-driven interfaces offer you a list of choices or options, called a menu, so that you can choose from several dif­ferent commands or functions. For ex­ample, a word-processing program might offer a menu of numbered choices. You type the number that cor­responds to your choice.

A popular form of menu-driven inter­faces uses two levels to provide more choices. At the first level, a menu bar provides a list of all the available menus. When you select a choice from the menu bar, a list of choices will drop down from the menu bar. This type of menu is called a pull-down menu.

Graphical user interfaces, often abbreviated GUIs, use pictures and graphic symbols to represent com­mands, choices, or actions. They often present the user with a graphic repre­sentation of a desktop, complete with pictures or icons of disks, a trash can, file folders, and programs. In addition, they provide windows—a method for divid­ing the display screen into variable-sized rectangles for viewing two or more appli­cations or parts of an application at the same time.

    1. Find synonyms.

Individual, request, option, select, communicate, choice, specify, wide, personal, ask, divide, define, choose, interact, interpret, separate, accomplish, simultaneously, broad, translate, share, execute, at the same time.

    1. F

      ROM, graphic and intuitive tools, a window, interface


      ill in the blanks with the words from the box.

1. A Macintosh ________ is called WIMP: Window, Icon, Mouse and a Pointer.

2. The ________ chips of a Macintosh contain libraries, that provide program developers with routines for generating windows, dialogue boxes, icons and pop-up menus.

3. Double-clicking opens ________ which contains programs, documents or further nestled windows.

4. A user interface is based on ________.

    1. Explain the following terms in your own words.

Window, pull-down menu, icon, folder, scroll bar, trash can (basket),dialog box.

1.7 Translate into English off-hand.

ІНТЕРФЕЙС КОРИСТУВАЧА

Будь-яку прикладну програму розробляють для широкого кола користувачів і вона повинна мати прості та зручні засоби взаємозв’язку з нею. Ці засоби називають інтерфейсом користувача.

Через інтерфейс користувач керує роботою програми, отримує від неї повідомлення, відповідає на запити програми та ін.

За способом розміщення вікна на екрані дисплея розрізняють горизонтальне меню (menu bar), спадаюче (pull-down), які звичайно з’являються під відповідним пунктом горизонтального меню, спливаюче (pop-up) меню, яке часто з’являється в позиції курсору миші.

Важливим елементом інтерфейсу користувача є вікно діалогу. Вікно діалогу видається на екран дисплея за програмою. У ньому або пропонується перелік об’єктів для вибору, наприклад перелік файлів, шрифтів, або його потрібно заповнити самому користувачу.

Можливості вікон діалогу графічних систем набагато ширші текстових. Вони включають додаткову кількість елементів, таких, наприклад, як командні кнопки, прапорці, поля вибору та ін.

Ще одним елементом інтерфейсу користувача є повідомлення системи, які відображаються на екрані дисплея. Ці повідомлення можна розділити на такі групи:

1) Повідомлення, які не потребують від користувача ніяких відповідних дій. Як правило, ці повідомлення інформують користувача про той процес, який проходить в комп’ютері. Наприклад, процес копіювання може супроводжуватись на екрані заповненням кольорової смуги. Або, наприклад, при знищенні файлів на екран видаються імена цих файлів.

2) Це повідомлення, які потребують від користувача відповідних дій. До таких повідомлень належать повідомлення про нормальне завершення програми (у цьому випадку достатньо натиснути клавішу Enter) і повідомлення про особливі ситуації. До останніх відносять, наприклад, повідомлення про відсутність дискети в дисководі, повідомлення про неможливість копіювання файла через відсутність вільної пам’яті на диску та ін.

1.8 Answer the questions.

  1. What is the purpose of a user interface?

  2. In what way do user interfaces differ?

  3. What types of interfaces are easier to learn?

  4. What types of interfaces are generally used nowadays?

  5. What does the abbreviation GUI stand for?

  6. What do GUIs present the user with?

  7. What does the acronym WIMP mean?

  8. How do you run a program on a computer with a graphical interface?

  9. Can you give two reasons for the importance of a user-friendly interface?

2.1 Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

The overall operation, set of parts, multiple tasks, within a single computer, keep track of, take care of, application programs, a named collection of information, store information, an empty platter, retrieve information, translate instructions, at a time, integration of dynamic data types, a video track, a sound track.

2.2 Learn key words and expressions.

application (n) – прикладна програма, застосування; використання

device driver – драйвер пристрою

device file – файл пристрою

format (v) - форматувати

format the disk – форматувати диск

integration of dynamic data – інтеграція (об’єднання) динамічних даних

keep track of – слідкувати за

kernel (n) – ядро

manage files – керувати файлами

manage information in memory – керувати інформацією в пам’яті

manage the flow of information – керувати потоком інформації

multimedia extension – розширення мультисередовища

multi-tasking OS – багатозадачна ОС

operating system – операційна система

portability (n) – рухливість; мобільність

shell (n) – оболонка

single-tasking OS – однозадачна ОС

support application programs – підтримувати прикладні програми

2.3 Read and translate the text.

OPERATING SYSTEMS

An operating system is software that manages the overall operation of the computer system. Its primary purpose is to support application programs. The parts of an operating system can be grouped into four broad functional cat­egories. One set of parts forms the shell or user interface; another set of parts is responsible for coordinating multiple computers in a network; a third set coor­dinates multiple tasks or basic units of work within a single computer; and, fi­nally, the kernel of the operating system is software that ties the hardware to the software and performs such tasks as keeping track of everything in memory and managing the flow of information to and from disks, the keyboard, and the display screen.

All application programs share some tasks in common. They include accept­ing characters typed at the keyboard, displaying information on the screen, managing information on a disk, and managing information in memory. The operating system takes care of the de­tails of these tasks. A most important example of how operating systems sup­port application programs is the task of managing files. A file is a named collec­tion of information. Whether your appli­cation is general or special purpose, your program needs to store information in files.

By itself, a disk is an empty platter waiting to be filled. The operating sys­tem takes care of

Operating systems also manage the other components of a computer sys­tem. They support programs, called de­vice drivers, that control the various hardware devices, such as the keyboard, display screen, and printer. The device driver translates instructions from the application into commands the hard­ware understands.

A single-tasking operating system runs one application program or task at a time. With multitasking operating sys­tems, you can have more than one appli­cation program or task active at a time. The operating system takes care of the details that are required to keep track of each task, know where the task's data are in memory, and allocate a fair share of computing services to each task.

Some operating systems allow inte­gration of dynamic data types such as sound, animation, and video. To accom­plish this, the operating system uses multimedia extensions—time-based synchronizing software for managing the coordination of video, sound, and animation. For example, a film might contain a video track and a sound track that need to be coordinated when the film is played on a computer's display screen.

2.4 Find antonyms.

Similar, secondary, in practice, descendant, advantage, permanent, minor, top, exclude, an extensive number, ancestor, few, internal, specific, major, primary, temporary, external, different, bottom, general, include, in theory, drawback.

2.5 Find synonyms.

Manage, multiple, involve, significant, interpret, control, numerous, translate, display, need, allocate, purpose, tie, show, require, contain, integration, aim, connect, important, check, hold, combination, kernel, goal, share, search, examine, cooperate, , divide, instruction, retrieve, work together, core, include, command.

2.6 Translate the following compound nouns into Ukrainian.

Multimedia extension, program management, network service, user interface, security control, application portability, software developer, hardware types, computer hardware, user familiarity, program file, video track.

2.7 Translate the following word-combinations into English so that could form compound nouns.

Файл пристрою, ім’я файла, рядок меню, екран дисплея, інтерфейс користувача, комп’ютерна система, драйвер пристрою, пристрої апаратного забезпечення, звукова доріжка, прикладне програмне забезпечення, програмні засоби бази даних, програмні засоби користувача, пристрій уведення, системний пристрій, пристрій виведення.

2.8 Give English equivalents .

Kерувати потоком інформації, піклуватися про деталі, форматувати диск, керувати розміщенням інформації, слідкувати за кожним завданням, прикладна програма, підтримувати прикладні програми, виконувати програму, зберігати інформацію на диску, керування мережею, перекладати команди, звукова доріжка, ядро операційної системи, оболонка, головна мета, спільно користуватися.

2.9 Explain the terms and word-combinations in your own words.

Format a disk, multimedia extension, single-tasking OS, multi-tasking OS, device driver, file/

2.10 Answer the questions.

  1. What is a primary purpose of an operating system?

  2. What functional categories can the parts of an operating system be grouped into?

  3. What does an operating system manage?

  4. What is the shell responsible for?

  5. What part of an OS ties hardware to software?

  6. What is a file?

  7. What does a device driver control?

  8. What software does an operating system use to allow integration of dynamic data type?

3.1 Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

Similar functions, in practice, the highly competitive nature, evolve improvements, undergo updates, an ancestor, a descendant, make compatible, standard methods, temporary windows, without modification, high-performance computers, the academic community, allocate resources, mediate access, application portability, familiarity with the interface, the safety and privacy of information.

3.2 Learn key words and word-combinations.

allocate resources – розподіляти ресурси

application writer – редактор програми

available (adj) – наявний; придатний

back up (v) – робити резервну копію

compatible (adj) – сумісний

delete (v) – вилучати; усувати; витирати

dialog box – вікно діалогу

file system – файлова система

library (n) – бібліотека

manage hardware – керувати апаратним забезпеченням

mediate access – опосередковувати доступ

network service – обслуговування мережі

read access – доступ для читання

run (v) – виконувати

update (n) – нова версія; оновлення, (v) – модифікувати; оновлювати

window interface – поліекранний інтерфейс

write access – доступ для запису

3.3 Read and translate the text.

COMPARING OPERATING SYSTEMS

Although in theory all operating systems perform very similar functions, in prac­tice there are many different operating systems. One primary reason is the highly competitive nature of the com­puter industry. Operating systems, like other major computer products, evolve and undergo improvements and up­dates over time. In addition, applications are developed to take advantage of spe­cific features in operating systems, so applications developed for one operat­ing system may not be available for other operating systems.

MS-DOS. MS-DOS is a single-tasking operating system. Newer versions have a com­mand-driven user interface. Their com­mands can be used to format disks; copy, rename, delete, and back up files; and organize and manage files on the disk. Newer versions also include a user interface called the shell with pull-down menus to access commands.

MS-DOS has several advantages.. MS-DOS does not require a powerful computer or a large amount of memory to run. It also has several disad­vantages. MS-DOS was specifically devel­oped for the Intel family of microproces­sors. It has no network services or multi­media extensions. And it has limitations on how it uses memory. In 1990s MS-DOS was ousted by Windows.

Windows NT. Windows NT (New Technology), in­troduced in 1992, is a descendant of DOS and the Windows extensions to DOS developed at Microsoft. It is a multitasking operating system. It has several advantages. It can run DOS and Windows programs without modifica­tion. It has network services and multi­media extensions, and it is not limited to the Intel family of processors. It has sev­eral disadvantages. It is designed for high-performance computers and re­quires large amounts of memory and disk space. It does not have as many applications developed for it as do other operating systems.

UNIX Operating System. Unix is an increasingly popular operating system. Traditionally used on minicomputers and workstations in the academic community, UNIX is now available on personal computers and the business community has started to choose UNIX for its openness. Previous PC and mainframe users are now looking to UNIX as their operating system solution.

UNIX, like other operating system, is a layer between the hardware and the applications that run on the computer. It has functions that manage the hardware and functions that manage executing applications. So what’s the difference between UNIX and any other operating system? Basically, two things: internal implementation and the interface that is seen and used by user.

The UNIX system is actually more than strictly an operating system. UNIX includes the traditional operating system components. In addition, a standard UNIX system includes a set of libraries and a set of applications. Sitting above the hardware are two components: the file system and process control. Next is the set of libraries. On top are the applications. The user has access to the libraries and to the applications. These two components are what many users think of as UNIX, because together they constitute the UNIX interface.

The part of UNIX that manages the hardware and the executing processes is called the kernel. In managing all hardware devices, the UNIX system views each device as a file (called a device file). This allows the same simple method of reading and writing files to be used to access each hardware device. The file system manages read and write access to user data and to devices, such as printers, attached to the system. It implements security controls to protect the safety and privacy of information. In executing processes, the UNIX system allocates resources (including use of the CPU) and mediates access to the hardware.

One important advantage that results from the UNIX standard interface is application portability. Application portability is the ability of a single application to be executed on various types of computer hardware without being modified. This can be achieved if the application uses the UNIX interface to manage its hardware needs. UNIX’s layered design insulates the application from the different types of hardware. This allows the software developer to support the single application on multiple hardware types with minimal effort. The application writer has lower development costs and a larger potential customer base. Users not only have applications available, but can rely on being able to use the same applications on different computer hardware.

UNIX goes beyond the traditional operating system by providing a standard set of libraries and applications that developers and users can use. This standard interface allows application portability and facilitates user’s familiarity with this interface.

3.4 Find synonyms.

Main, choice, numerous, contain, handle, allocate, variant, defend, search, purpose, require, cooperate, develop, restriction, acquire, benefit, selection, version, include, modification, kernel, change, manage, limitation, obtain, need, protect, advantage, evolve, primary, multiple, aim, retrieve, work together, core,divide.

3.5 Complete the sentences with the phrases from the box. You can use the phrase more

than once.

application software operating system software system software system utilities



1. Information provided by programs and data is known as ­­­________________.

2. The ­­­________________ refers to all programs which control the basic functions of the computer.

3. The ________________ refers to all those applications such as word processors and spreadsheets which are used for specific purposes.

4. The ________________ is the most important type of system software.

5. ________________ are small programs which improve a system’s performance and help users take advantage of the computer’s capabilities.

6. In most configurations, the ________________ is automatically loaded into the RAM section when the computer is started up.

3.6 Translate the following compound nouns into Ukrainian.

Program module, service program, computer device, memory allocation, computer resources, display screen, user interface, disk space, user data, hardware device, computer hardware, development cost, customer base, application portability.

3.7 Translate into English off-hand.

Операційні системи ПК доповнюють апаратні засоби. Вони являють собою набір програмних модулів, які дозволяють користувачеві забезпечувати взаємодію програм з зовнішніми пристроями та один з одним. Операційні системи мають набір сервісних програм, які дозволяють здійснювати перевірку функціонування пристроїв комп’ютера, розмітку дискет, зв’язок з локальною мережею та ін.

До основних функцій ОС, що забезпечують взаємодію програм з апаратурою, треба віднести такі: взаємодію програм із зовнішніми пристроями, розподіл оперативної пам’яті, виявлення помилок та нестандартних ситуацій та ін.

До основних функцій ОС, що забезпечують загальне керування ресурсами комп’ютера, необхідно віднести форматування дискети, виведення на екран дисплея каталогу, копіювання файлів з однієї дискети на іншу, встановлення режимів роботи дисплея та принтера, запуск програми та ін.

3.8 Answer the questions.

  1. What is the purpose of an operating system?

  2. What changes have operating systems undergone for the last decade?

  3. What does the word “compatible” mean?

  4. What are the advantages of a multi-tasking OS over a single-tasking OS?

  5. What is the function of the Finder in Macintosh computer?

  6. What language are modern OSs written in?

  7. Why is Unix considered to be the best?

3.9 Read and summarize the article.

AUTHENTIC HERO.

LINUX, the free computer operating system developed by thousands of volunteers collaborating over the Internet, is still not taken very seriously in corporate circles. It is used for niche tasks, such as running web servers, but it is generally deemed to be too immature for the most demanding environments, such as heavy-duty database systems. Recent events, however, suggest that Linux—whose mascot is a cheerful penguin—may have outgrown the commune of its birth. On January 4th Linus Torvalds, the Finnish programmer who co­ordinates the development of Linux, quietly released the latest version of the Linux kernel—the software that, as its name suggests, is at the core of the operating system. Many of the enhancements in this new kernel (version 2.4) make Linux more suitable for corporate use. In particular, they make it more "scalable"—in other words, as capable of working on very large computer systems as on small ones. Linux 2.4 can support more processors, more memory, and raster networking and disk access—all prerequisites for industrial-strength corporate use. Just as the software itself has become more solid, so support for Linux within the computer industry has also been growing. IBM, which has embraced Linux across its product range, from PCS to mainframes, announced in December that it would spend $1 billion on Linux-related activities in 2001. And this week the Open Source Development Laboratory, an independent, not-for-profit research centre financed by such in­dustry giants as ibm. Intel and Dell, opened its doors. It is intended to accelerate the adoption of Linux in business computing, and to allow developers to test their software on the largest systems. In other words, with the notable exceptions of Microsoft and Sun Microsystems, the industry is pushing Linux for use in corporate computing. Linux is also proving a popular choice for powering Internet appliances, such as handheld computers and smart telephones. And. at the other end of the scale, it is emerging as a powerful force in the specialist field of supercomputing. By connecting hundreds of PCs Running Linux in a "cluster", it is possible to construct an enormously powerful machine for a fraction of the cost of a conventional supercomputer, ibm recently started installing a 1.024-processor Linux supercomputer at Shell's research centre in the Netherlands, where the oil company plans to use it to analyse geophysical data and to help it find oil. And on January 16th. Amer­ica's National Centre for Supercomputing Applications said that it had agreed to buy two Linux supercomputers from IBM. one of which will be the fourth-fastest supercomputer in the world when it is switched on this summer. There are some fears that the embrace of Linux by big computing companies could prove a mixed blessing. George Weiss of Gartner, a research firm, suggests that IBM. in particular, "looms like a shadow" over the future of Linux: its obvious enthusiasm, he says, might deter new firms from entering the market for Linux support and services. Any attempt by big computing companies to hijack Linux, declares Eric Raymond, an open-source guru, would be counter-pro­ductive, since it would alienate the very people from whom Linux draws its strength. Yet it is inevitable, as Linux becomes increasingly popular, that it will shed the revolutionary cachet which, for some of its supporters, is its greatest appeal.

Write a report on one of the topics and discuss them in class.

  1. Modern OS

  2. System Utilities

4.1 Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

In contrast to, in response to, built-in, problem-solving features, common tasks, specific use, coin, a standard set of office activities, a common application, manual methods, business correspondence, a margin, in addition, a draft, electronic ways, become apparent, a visual aid, look professional, revise a document, blocks of text, a discrepancy, thesaurus program.

4.2 Learn key words and word-combinations.

application software – прикладне програмне забезпечення

arrow key – клавіша керування курсором

boldface (n) – жирний шрифт

compose (v) – складати

deletion (n) – вилучення

draft (n) – чернетка

End key – клавіша переміщення курсору до кінця (сегмента)

flush left (right) – зміщений ліворуч (праворуч); вирівняний ліворуч (праворуч)

font (n) - шрифт

font name – назва шрифту

footnote (n) – підрядкова примітка

header (n) – заголовок; рубрика

Home key – клавіша переходу до початку (сегмента)

indented paragraph – абзац

justification – вирівнювання; узгодження

margin (n) – поле (сторінки)

Page Down key – клавіша прямого перегляду

page preview – перегляд сторінок

Page Up key – клавіша зворотнього перегляду

point size – розмір у пунктах

revise a document – редагувати документ

save (v) – зберігати

scrolling(n) – прокручування

spacing (n) – відстань; проміжок

spelling checker – орфографічний коректор

type face – вид шрифту

underline (v) - підкреслювати

word processing – опрацювання текстів

word processor – текстовий процесор

word wrap – автоматичний перехід до нового рядка

4.3 Read and translate the text.

APPLICATION SOFTWARE

In contrast to operating systems, appli­cation software performs work not re­lated to the computer system itself. This application software falls into two categories: special purpose and general purpose.

Special-purpose programs have been developed in response to the spe­cific needs of individuals, professionals, and small businesses. Dedicated to per­forming tasks such as payroll, account­ing, bookkeeping, education, entertain­ment, or statistical analysis, the pro­grams contain built-in problem-solving features specially designed for those par­ticular tasks.

General-purpose programs have been developed in response to the gen­eral problem-solving needs of people whose work involves such common tasks as planning, writing, record keep­ing, calculating, and communicating. General-purpose software can be adapted to a wide variety of tasks.

Software for writing Word processing is a term coined by IBM in 1964 to describe electronic ways of handling a standard set of office activi­ties—composing, revising, filing, and printing written documents. Word pro­cessing is a common application for per­sonal computers.

Composing a document simply means typing the text on your computer keyboard. With most word processors, you select an option that lets you create a new document and begin typing. When you start with a blank screen, a small blinking box or underline, called a cursor—a visual aid on the display screen—is positioned at the beginning of the document. As you type, the cursor marks where the next character you type will appear. With most word processors, you will notice that when you reach the end of a line, the cursor will automatically jump down to the next line and any words extending past the right margin will au­tomatically drop with the cursor. This feature is called word wrap; it allows you to continue typing without having to use the Enter key. In addition, effects that make your work look professional, such as centred titles, headers and foot­notes, indented paragraphs, and bold­faced and underlined words or phrases, are all easily accomplished with special commands.

Revising One of the most power­ful features of word processing is its abil­ity to revise a document. Although revisions can be accom­plished during the process of compos­ing your document, assume that you have completely typed a first draft of your report on your word processor. You wish to check it for errors and polish it into a final draft. You can move to any location in the document by using the cursor movement arrow keys, or other specially marked keys, such as Page Up, Page Down, Home, or End. Because many documents are larger than can be displayed on the screen, scrolling — the process of moving the contents of a screen up, down, left, or right—can be used to view any portion of the docu­ment. By using the cursor movement keys, you can quickly move through a document and make changes, corrections, additions, and de­letions.

. For more extensive revisions, you can move, copy, or delete entire paragraphs or other specially marked blocks of text. Revising also includes changing how the document appears, which is called reformatting. This capa­bility includes changing from single to double spacing—or vice versa—as well as changing the width of the printed text by resetting the left and/or right margins.

Word processors come with options that help you to compose complex documents. They include spelling checkers, thesaurus programs, form-letter addressing programs, and programs that can insert graphics and pictures into your document.

Filing and printing Whatever you compose or revise in a document stays in the computer’s memory until you save or file it on a disk. Filing is accomplished by using commands that name and save a fully or partially finished document on a disk

Most word processors have a feature called page preview that allows you to view a screen representation of how pages will be produced by the printer. Others are designed to reproduce the words on the page in exactly the same format as they appear on the display screen. One of the benefits of word processing is its ability to revise and edit draft copies without having to print each version. Only the finished draft need be printed.

4.4 Find synonyms.

Perform, purchase, contain, specific, handle, benefit, select, begin, look for, blank, locate, next, permit, go on, make up, see, fast, ability, accomplish, buy, include, particular, symbol, manipulate, choose, alter, insert, start, position, indicate, allow, continue, advantage, view, quick, paste, empty, mark, following, character, compose, make changes, search, capability.

4.5 Give English equivalents.

У відповідь на, редагувати документ, ставати очевидним, вибирати опцію, чернетка, підрядкова примітка, заголовок, рубрика, підкреслювати, абзац (відступ), до того ж, подвійний інтервал, вилучати, мати професійний вигляд, орфографічний коректор, рух курсору, прикладне програмне забезпечення, вирівнювання/узгодження, об’єднання, клавіша прямого перегляду.

4.6 Explain the following terms in your own words.

Word processing, cursor, spelling checker, page preview, general-purpose program, special-purpose program, word wrap, scrolling.

4.7 Look at the words in the box and complete the following sentences with them.

type style WYSIWYG format indent

font menu justification mail merging


  1. ______________ stands for “what you see is what you get”. It means that your printout will precisely match what you see in the screen.

  1. ______________ refers to the process by which the space between the words in a line is divided evenly to make the text flush with both left and right margins.

  1. You can change font by selecting the font name and point size from the ­­­­__________.

  1. ______________ refers to a distinguishing visual characteristic of a type face; “italic”, for example is a __________ that may be used with a number of typeface.

  1. The ­­­_________ menu of a word processor allows you to set margins, page numbers, spaces between columns and paragraph justifications.

  1. ______________ enables you to combine two files, one containing names and addresses and the other containing a standard letter.

  1. An ____________ is the distance between the beginning of a line and the left margin, or the end of the line and the right margin. Indented text is usually narrower than text without ___________.

4.8 Answer the questions.

  1. What kind of work does application software perform?

  2. What categories can application software be divided into?

  3. What are the advantages of general-purpose software?

  4. What does the term “word-processing” mean?

  5. What is one of the powerful features of word processing?

  6. What options do word processors come with?

  7. What is page preview?

5.1 Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

Methods and techniques, arcade games, in conjunction with, sophisticated presentations, the growing popularity, a step-by-step series, convey ideas, share programs and information, message-passing centre, topical in nature, a projection panel, directory services, computer-to-computer communication, various modes of communication, switching between functions.

5.2 Learn key words and phrases.

arcade game – відеогра в реальному часі

business graphics – ділова графіка

chart (n) – схема; креслення; діаграма

communication software – програмне забезпечення зв’язку

computer graphics – комп’ютерна графіка

computer-aided design (CAD)– автоматизоване проектування

draw program – графічна програма

electronic bulletin board – електронна дошка об’яв

electronic mail – електронна пошта

file structure – структура файлу

graphics software – програмні засоби машинної графіки

log on a system – завантажувати систему

modem (n) – модем

paint program – програма малювання

presentation graphics – супровідна графіка

share programs – спільно користуватися програмами

spreadsheet program – електронна таблиця

stand-alone – автономний

5.3 Read and translate the text.

GRAPHICS AND COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE

Computer graphics is a broad term that refers to the methods and tech­niques used to draw pictures or images on display screens or on graphic printers and plotters. You have probably seen computer graphics in arcade and educa­tional games and in special effects on television programs and films. Another use for graphics is in the graphical user interfaces, where pictures are used in conjunc­tion with words to communicate with the user.

Graphic software for personal com­puters can be used to create charts, pre­sentations, maps, drawings, diagrams, and pictures. The simplest graphic soft­ware consists of paint and draw pro­grams. A paint program pro­vides commands to create lines, circles, rectangles, and other shapes, as well as do freehand sketching. A draw pro­gram provides similar capabilities, but the objects created, such as circles or rectangles, can be resized or moved around on the screen without affecting other objects. Draw programs are better suited for diagrams that must often be changed, whereas paint programs are preferred for more artistic illustrations. Computer-aided design (CAD) pro­grams use very sophisticated draw-pro­gram features to allow engineers to use their display screens as electronic draft­ing tables and eliminate the tedium of manually redrawing their designs in much the same way that the users of spreadsheet programs eliminate the te­dium of manual recalculation.

The largest application for personal computer graphic software is producing business graphics. Application software for business graphics includes two cat­egories, charting programs and presen­tation graphics programs.

Charting programs are built-in components of spreadsheet programs. These programs are capable of trans­forming data that are contained in their spreadsheet into charts - graphics or diagrams that display data or the relationships among data in pictorial form. Common chart types include bar, line, and pie charts.

Presentation graphics programs are stand-alone programs that help you create presentations including output to transparencies or slides.

The traditional presentation involves a step-by-step series of slides consisting of bullet-pointed text and accompanying graphics. It is typi­cally used to supplement a human speaker who is trying to convey ideas to another person or a group of people. More sophisticated presentations incorpo­rate animation, sound, and video, thanks to the growing popularity of multimedia.

COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE. By itself, a personal computer is a power­ful and interesting tool, but when it can communicate with other computers, a whole new world of applications opens up. Groups of computers linked to­gether in networks can share programs and information. For example, you can communicate with another personal computer by sending and receiving elec­tronic mailan application that handles the sending and receiving of electronic messages. You can connect to a public-access electronic bulletin board, software that serves as an infor­mation and message-passing centre for its users. Electronic bulletin boards are usually topical in nature and exist for almost any subject.

5.4 Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following terms and expressions.

Electronic mail, computer graphics, electronic bulletin board, paint program, message-passing centre, draw program, on-going dialog, charting program, information-providing service, desktop presentation program, communications software, stand-alone program, automatic answer mode, step-by step, log on to a system, to share programs, capture data, to transfer files, file structure.

5.5 Find synonyms.

Picture, link, occur, combined, perform, method, change, transfer, manage, apply, transform, stand – alone, use, illustration, selection, transmit, convert, begin, connect, technique, organize, alter, sophisticated, start, take place, autonomous, integrated, fulfil

5.6 Complete the sentences using the words from the box. You can use words more than once.

computer graphics computer animation CAD software

  1. ________________ are pictures and drawings produced by the computer.

  2. ________________ is used to develop, model and test car designs before the actual parts are made.

  3. ________________ is the process of creating objects which move across the screen.

  4. Engineers use ________________ to design circuits.

  5. Basically, ________________ helps users to understand complex information quickly by presenting it in a clear visual form.

5.7 Complete the sentences by using an appropriate gerund from those in the box.

creating adding clicking processing printing rendering

1. Graphic artists like ____________ colour and depth to their drawings and designs.

2. A 32-bit painting program has a complete palette of tools for ____________ images from scratch.

3. The speed of a microprocessor is important in ____________ information.

  1. Before ____________ a document, the user should decide on the layout.

  1. You can open the colour palette by ____________ on the corresponding pop-up icon.

  2. ____________ refers to the techniques used to make realistic objects.

    1. Translate into English.

Презентація зі сценарієм – це традиційна презентація зі слайдами, доповнена засобами кольорової графіки й анімації з виведенням відеоматеріалу на великий екран. У ній забезпечується можливість під час показу вносити зміни у процес демонстрації. Цей вид презентації належить до найпоширеніших мультимедійних презентацій, які включають титри, що пливуть по екрану і містять додаткові пояснення.

Використання анімаційного тексту в поєднанні з анімаційними діаграмами, графіками та ілюстраціями дає змогу зосередити увагу слухачів на основних положеннях і сприяє кращому запам’ятовуванню інформації.

    1. Answer the questions.

  1. What is computer graphics?

  2. What do acronyms “CAD”, “CAE”, “CAM” stand for?

  3. What are the benefits of using computer graphics in engineering?

  4. What are the benefits of using computer graphics in the car industry?

  5. What is “desktop presentation”?

  6. How can you communicate with another personal computer?

  1. Read and translate the text. Write out computer terms.

DESKTOP PUBLISHING

One application that has grown in popu­larity recently is desktop publishing. In all organizations, there is the fun­damental need to produce written com­munications that not only deliver a message clearly but have a professional look as well. Desktop publishing can satisfy that need. In its simplest form, desktop publishing entails the use of personal computers to prepare and print a wide variety of typeset- or near-typeset-quality documents.

Desktop-publishing software, often called page-composition software, shares some characteristics with its pro­genitor, word-processing software; how­ever, desktop-publishing programs are quite different from word processing programs. A word processor's features are designed to let users control and manipulate a document's content, whereas a desktop-publishing program is more concerned with changes in style, format, placement, and shaping of text and graphics. Anyone who is consider­ing using a desktop-publishing program should be prepared to learn the basics of graphic design and typography. Effective design is the key to publishing clear, professional-looking communications.

The process involves designing or lay­ing out the publication; making up or composing the document by assembling the text and graphics created by other programs; making changes such as repo­sitioning items, editing text, and ma­nipulating graphics; and publishing the finished product on a high-quality printer.

Desktop publishing can be used to create

In these applications, desktop pub­lishing can accomplish the following:

In addition to high-quality printers, desktop publishing requires a good deal of graphic display capability.

  1. Answer the questions.

  1. In what way do desktop publishing programs differ from word-processing programs?

  2. What documents can be produced with desktop publishing software?

  3. What capabilities does desktop publishing require?

  4. What do these terms mean in Ukrainian: page-composition software, image setter?

  5. What are the advantages of desktop publishing?

7.1 Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

a collection of data, the database capabilities, computerized filing cabinets, sophisticated multiple-file systems, handle basic tasks, a general example, a set of records, a preidentified sequence, ZIP code, the entire contents, to meet the criterion, a specific record.

    1. Learn key words and word-combinations.

database (n) – база даних

database management system – СКБД (система керування базою даних)

database manager – адміністратор бази даних

database program – програма бази даних

database software – програмні засоби бази даних

field (n) – поле

file manager – програма керування файлами

format (v) – форматувати

personal information manager – адміністратор особистої інформації

record (n) – запис

record structure – структура запису

report generator – генератор звітів

7.3 Read and translate the text.

DATABASE SOFTWARE

A database is a collection of data, a structure, and programs that can manage and manipulate the data and its structure. Database software for personal com­puters falls into two categories:

A file manager is composed of a single file, its indexes, and a program to handle basic tasks such as entering, modifying, retrieving, and printing data from the file.

A database manager is composed of multiple files, their indexes, the relationships among data in the files, and a program to link the files and handle basic tasks such as entering, modifying, retrieving, and printing data from the file.

A database program derives much of its power through the ability to perform three simple tasks: sorting, searching, and generating reports. To show how a database program allows you to perform these tasks, it is helpful to look at a general example. Almost all businesses keep a set of records known as a cus­tomer list. In its simplest form, it might be a file, in which each record is a card that contains a customer's name, address, and phone number. A more complex example might include a record for each cus­tomer that contains enough information to generate all the company's billing in­formation.

Suppose that the customer list data­base is made up of one record for each customer, which includes the previously mentioned customer information along with some general information about the customer's purchases. Sorting, which involves arranging the records into a predeidentified sequence, makes it possible to generate a list sorted by cus­tomer number, alphabetically by cus­tomer name, by ZIP code for mailing purposes, or even by items purchased. Sorting a database also makes it possible to search and generate reports in various sequences. For example, you can sort a database alphabetically by customer name to print a report and then sort the database by ZIP code to generate and print mailing labels in ZIP code order.

Searching involves the ability to find information in a database. This might include a most general case in which you want to list the entire contents of a data­base on the computer's display screen or a special case in which you want to search for a specific record or set of records. For example, if you want to know the name of every customer who purchased more than $10,000 worth of goods last year, you could search the customer list database to display only those customers who meet the crite­rion—more than $10,000 in sales.

A report generator allows you to cre­ate nicely formatted reports, including headings, subheadings, columns of data from the database, columns of data com­puted from existing fields in the data­base, and computed intermediate and final totals. Once the format of the report has been defined, it can be saved as a file on a disk and used over and over again to print copies of the report.

A class of software similar to database programs is called personal informa­tion managers. Like databases, these programs help you manage information. Unlike databases, they can manage infor­mation without using the record and field structure common to databases. You do not have to think about the struc­ture of your data ahead of time. For example, you can use a personal infor­mation manager to type in notes about a project you are working on, then filter through the notes and reorganize them by categories of your own choosing.

    1. Give English equivalents.

Упорядковувати базу даних в алфавітному порядку, знаходити інформацію в базі даних, керувати даними та їхньою структурою, складні системи файлів, керувати основними завданнями, з’єднувати файли, відповідати критерію, визначити формат звіту, заздалегідь, за власним вибором, друкувати звіт, вводити дані, вилучати дані

    1. Give synonyms

Handle, retrieve, compose, include, modify, arrange, delete, perform

    1. Answer the questions.

  1. What is a database?

  2. Which tasks can be performed by using a database? Make a list of possible applications.

  3. What do these terms mean in Ukrainian: file, record, field?

  4. What is personal information manager?

  5. What stages can be defined while working with database?

TEST YOURSELF

Match the following key terms to the appropriate definition:

A.

  1. User interface

  2. Command-driven interface

  3. Menu-driven interface

  4. Graphical user interface

  5. Windows

  6. Operating system

  7. File

  8. Device driver

  9. Single tasking

  10. Multitasking

  1. An interface that uses pictures and graphic symbols to represent commands, choices, or actions.

  2. A method for dividing the display screen into variable-sized rectangles.

  3. Functional units that control the operation of the hard­ware components of a personal computer system.

  4. A set of programs that manages the overall operation of a computer system.

  5. An operating system that allows two or more applications to be operating at the same time.

  6. An interface that prompts the user to type in a single letter, word, or line that represents an instruction.

  7. Software that passes information to and from the person using the program.

  8. An interface that offers a list of choices or options as a way of getting the user to make a selection.

  9. An operating system that allows one application to be operating at a time.

  10. A named organized collection of information.

B.

  1. Network services

  2. Multimedia extensions

  3. Application software

  4. Special-purpose programs

  5. General-purpose programs

  6. Word processing

  7. Cursor

  8. Word wrap

  9. Scrolling

  10. Desktop publishing

  11. Spreadsheet

  1. Programs that are dedicated to performing single-use tasks.

  2. Time-based synchronizing software for coordinating video, sound, and animation.

  3. An interactive program that enables you to organize numbers and formulas into a rectangular array of cells.

  4. Software that provides file-sharing, print-sharing, and electronic mail.

  5. A blinking box or underline that marks where the next character you type will appear.

  6. Programs that are adaptable to a wide variety of tasks.

  7. Programs that perform work not related to the computer system itself.

  8. Electronic ways of handling a standard set of office activi­ties — composing, revising, printing, and filing written documents.

  1. A feature that allows you to type beyond one line without having to use the [Enter] key.

  2. The use of personal computers to prepare and print a wide variety of typeset- or near-typeset-quality documents.

  1. The process of moving the contents of a display screen up, down, left, or right.

  1. Database

  2. File manager

  3. Database manager

  4. Record

  5. Field

  6. Sorting

  7. Computer graphics

  8. Charting program

  9. Presentation graphics program

  10. Modem

  11. Communications software

  1. The smallest unit of named data that has meaning in a record.

  2. Software that provides the interface between one com­puter with a modem and another computer with a modem.

  1. A collection of data, a structure, and programs that manage and manipulate the data.

  2. Multiple files, their indexes, the relationships among data in the files, and a program to link the files.

  3. Programs that help you create presentations including output to transparencies or slides.

  4. A single file, its indexes, and a program to handle basic tasks.

  5. A collection of related data treated as a unit.

  6. Programs that are capable of transforming data that are contained in their spreadsheet into charts.

  7. A device that enables two computers to exchange data over standard telephone lines.

  8. The methods and techniques used to draw pictures or images on display screens or special graphic printers and plotters.

  1. Arranging records into a preidentified sequence.

True/False:

  1. System software includes operating systems and programming languages.

  2. Using a personal computer primarily involves finding the right hardware that will meet your application needs.

  3. One of the main purposes of an operating system is to support application programs.

  4. One trend in operating systems is to make the user interface command driven.

  5. Even though operating systems perform similar functions, using one computer's operating system is not the same as using another.

  1. One advantage of a word processor is the accuracy with which you can make corrections, additions, and deletions.

  1. Whatever you compose or revise in a word-processing document is automatically transferred to disk.

  2. Desktop-publishing users need to learn the basics of graphic design and typography.

  3. Searching the database involves arranging the records into a preidentified sequence.

  4. The largest application for personal computer graphics software is freehand drawing.

Multiple Choice:

  1. Which of the following is not considered application software?

  1. Spreadsheet programs.

  2. Operating systems.

  3. Word processors.

  4. Communications programs.

  1. Which of the following are not usually stored in a spreadsheet cell?

  1. Values.

  2. Formulas.

  3. Labels.

  4. Models.

  1. Which of the following is not a basic function of a spreadsheet program?

  1. Writing.

  2. Forecasting.

  3. Planning.

  4. Modelling.

  1. Computerized record-keeping systems allow you to

  1. Check for spelling and punc­tuation errors.

  2. Communicate with other computers.

  3. Enter, modify, and retrieve data.

  4. Manage files on disks.

  1. The job of managing files belongs to the

  1. Word processor.

  2. Communications program.

  3. Database program.

  4. Operating system.

  1. Which of the following types of user interfaces usually requires that you type in abbreviated instruc­tions?

  1. Command-driven interface.

  2. Menu-driven interface.

  3. Graphical user interface.

  4. None of the above.

  1. Which of the following is not a function of a word processing program?

  1. Document management.

  2. Composing.

  3. Record keeping.

  4. Revising.

  1. A primary purpose of computer graphics is to

  1. Change the user interface of computers.

  2. Communicate with other computers.

  3. Create formatted reports.

  4. Draw pictures on display screens.

Unit 4

INPUT

  1. Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

An information system, deactivate processing, encode data, digital code, transform data into digital code, an information-processing cycle, a finger touch, a machine-readable code, an encoded piece of data, source documents, a separate transcribing step, input technology, error-prone transcribing, computer processing, the point of origin, a specially encoded price tag, a human error, time-consuming, a special reading device.

1.2 Learn key-words and expressions.

activate (v) – активувати; викликати

capture data – збирати дані

eliminate(v) – вилучати

encode data – закодувати данні

enter data – вводити дані

error prone – схильний до помилок

finger touch – дотик пальця

information processing – опрацювання інформації

machine-readable code – машинний код

memory location – комірка пам’яті

on-line processing - оперативне опрацювання

scan(v) – сканувати

source document – початковий документ

switch(v) – перемикати

transcribed input – закодоване введення

transform data into digital code – перетворити дані у цифровий код

trigger (n) – тригер; запускати

    1. Read and translate the text.

COMPUTER SYSTEM INPUT

Generally, an information system is acti­vated by the input of data or information. Input can also deactivate processing. Thus, the primary role of input is to activate or deactivate infor­mation processing.

Input is a process that involves the use of a device to encode or transform data into digital codes that the computer can process. For example, if you press the letter A on the keyboard of a terminal or personal computer, you activate an information-processing cycle. The key is simply a switch that senses a finger touch and triggers a cycle to accomplish the following: (1) the keystroke is encoded, or converted into a machine-readable code, (2) the encoded piece of data is stored in a memory location for later processing, and (3) output is provided by displaying the letter A on the computer’s monitor screen.

Input can be classified into two broad categories: (1) transcribed input—data that are captured by tran­scribing from source documents onto another medium that is capable of being input to a computer system and (2) di­rect source input —data that are cap­tured directly from their source without a separate transcribing step. Advances in input technology are moving the process of input away from transcription toward the capturing of data directly from their source.

There are two major drawbacks to transcribed input. The first is that the process is time consuming. The second is that the process is error prone. Human error is the single biggest cause of mistakes in data input.

Time-consuming and error-prone tran­scribing can be bypassed by entering data directly from their source with a special reading de­vice known as a scanner. This saves time by eliminating the step of pressing keys, and it is also a more accu­rate way of entering data.

    1. Find synonyms.

Encode, convert, drawback, means, transform, capture, fulfil, enter, advance, gather, breakthrough, common, main, general, include, disadvantage, collect, primary, accomplish, involve, major, medium

    1. Give English equivalents.

Перетворити дані в цифровий код, цикл опрацювання інформації, запустити цикл, збирати дані, підготувати дані до введення, введення даних з клавіатури, вхідне повідомлення (опрацювання запиту), пристрій сканування, клавіатура ПК, відчувати дотик пальця, перетворити в машинний код, зберігати в комірці пам’яті, інший запит, процес введення

    1. Give Ukrainian equivalents.

Information-processing cycle, office automation technology, satellite communication system, automatic teller machine, computer- based device, fast-food industry, computer-generated image, liquid-crystal display, pianolike keyboard, computer-aided instruction, computer-aided design, floppy disk drive, graphical user interface, long-term storage, fibre-optic cable

    1. Answer the questions.

  1. In what way is an information system activated?

  2. What is the primary role of input?

  3. What are the two categories of classifying input?

  4. What do we call systems using transcribed data input?

  5. What are the advantages of direct source input?

  6. What devices are used for direct source input?

2.1 Read and translate the following words and word-combination.

Key-switch technology, electromechanical switches, flat-sealed surface, harsh environment, fast-food restaurants, lack of speed, an average rate, a low-average human reading speed, a typewriter layout, a visual aid, a blinking box, a key-driven command.

  1. Learn key words and word-combinations.

boldface (n) – жирний шрифт

control key – клавіша керування

data-entry terminal – термінал введення

function key – функціональна клавіша

help system – система допомоги

input device – пристрій введення

input system – система введення

keyboard (n) – клавіатура

keyboard template – трафарет клавіатури

layout (n) – розміщення

manual labour – ручна праця

membrane keyboard – контактна клавіатура

mode of operation – режим роботи

numeric keypad – цифрова клавіатура

QWERTY – клавіатура американського типу

set of function keys – набір функціональних клавіш

special cursor key – клавіша керування курсором

word-processing software – програмні засоби опрацювання тексту

2.3 Read and translate the text.

KEYBOARDS

Keyboards are the most widely used in­put devices. Keyboards are found as compo­nents in such input systems as computer terminals, data-entry terminals, cash reg­isters, and telephones.

Construction, uses and layout . Keyboards consist of keyswitch technology coupled with elec­tronic circuitry to encode the data that are entered by pressing keys. Electric typewriters and computers use electro­mechanical switches. Automatic teller machines often use membrane key­boards that have flat-sealed surfaces. Membrane keyboards are more suitable than switches for use in harsh environments. For example, such keyboards are used in fast-food restaurants, where dirt and grease might clog an ordinary key­board.

One major drawback of using a key­board is lack of speed.

There is no standard layout for keyboards. On most of them, you will find the following:

  1. A typewriter layout.

  2. Function keys.

  3. Special control keys.

  4. Cursor movement keys.

In the centre of the keyboard is a type­writer layout for traditional entry of text and special characters. The most com­mon layout is called QWERTY, named for the six leftmost characters in the top row of alphabetic characters.

A computer keyboard needs more keys than the typewriter layout, and these are generally found surrounding the typewriter keyboard area. In addi­tion to a numeric keypad, you will find (1) function keys; (2) special keys la­beled [Ctrl] Control, [Alt] Alternate, [Esc] Escape, [Del] Delete, and [Enter] or [Return]; and (3) four cursor move­ment keys to move the cursor up, down, left, and right.

Function keys are labeled with the characters [Fl] through [F12]. The idea behind function keys is to sim­plify the use of application programs. For example, word-processing software often uses the function keys to perform special commands, such as boldface, underline, or delete a sentence or a para­graph. Pressing the [Fl] key brings up a help system in many applications.

Function keys can be used in conjunc­tion with other keys. Holding down the [Alt] key while pressing [Fl], for ex­ample, causes a different command to be executed than pressing the [Fl] key alone. By combining the function keys with the [Ctrl], Shift, and [Alt] keys, a lot functions can be performed.

The Escape key [Esc] is usually used to move from one mode of operation to another. For example, if you have in­structed your word-processing software to print a document and discover that you forgot to set your continuous-form ­feed paper at the top of the form, you may be able to press the [Esc] key to stop the printing, correct the mistake, and then continue. However, different appli­cations might have other uses for the [Esc] key.

The [Enter] key, sometimes called the [Return] key, fulfils two functions depending on the program with which it is used. The [Enter] key functions as a signal to continue in most programs. Pressing the [Enter] key also positions the cursor at the beginning of the next line, which is the electronic equivalent of pressing the carriage [Return] key on a typewriter.

The Control key [Ctrl] is always used in conjunction with one or two other keys to give instructions to a program. For example, when using a word proces­sor, pressing the D key causes the char­acter D to appear on the screen. If you hold down the [Ctrl] key while pressing the D key, the word processor might interpret the combination as an instruction to delete a character. The [Alt key is used in the same manner. Cursor movement keys moving the cursor around on the screen is one of the most common tasks in an application program. A cursor is a visual aid on a display screen. It may take the shape of a blinking box or underline, an arrow, or even a pointing finger.

2.4 Find synonyms.

Couple, combine, enter, capture, use, apply, require, need, traditional, find, search, perform, conventional, advantage, benefit, display, show, accomplish, drawback, disadvantage, execute, discover, tag, find out, at the top, at the bottom, label, interpret, translate, shape, form.

2.5 Form the plural of the following nouns.

Mouse, phenomenon, criterion, stimulus, medium, index, memorandum, means, series, stylus, analysis, spectrum.

2.6 Give English equivalents.

Основний недолік, середня швидкість читання, спільні риси, стандартне розміщення, традиційне уведення, альтернативне розміщення, режим роботи, клавіша керування курсором, виправити помилку, виконувати функції, видаляти символ за символом.

2.7 Match these descriptions with the names of keys on the right.

  1. A long key at the bottom of the keyboard. Each time it is pressed it produces a blank space.

  2. It moves the cursor to the beginning of a new line. It is also used to confirm commands.

  3. It stops a program with out losing the information from the main memory. Sometimes its use depends on the application.

  4. It works in combinations with other keys to produce special characters or specific actions.

  5. It removes the character on the left of the cursor or any selected text.

  6. It produces UPPER-CASE characters or the upper-case characters of the keys.

  7. It produces upper-case letters but it does not affect numbers and symbols.

  8. It moves the cursor horizontally to the right for fixed number of spaces (in tabulations and data fields).

  9. They are used to move the cursor, as an alternative to the mouse.

ARROW KEYS

RETURN

CAPS LOCK

SHIFT

TAB

ESCAPE

SPACE BAR

DELETE

ALT

2.8 Translate into English.

  1. Клавіатура призначена для введення до ПК символьної інформації, а також для управління роботою ПК.

  2. Перехід у режим введення великих літер, здійснюється натискуванням клавіші [CAPS LOCK].

  3. Натискування клавіші [ENTER] сприймається комп’ютером як вказівка приступити до виконання введеної команди.

  4. Група цифрових клавіш є на всіх сучасних клавіатурах і в основному призначена для введення чисел.

  5. Клавіші зі стрілками служать для переміщення курсору або прокручування тексту по екрану.

2.9 Answer the questions.

1. What is the major drawback of using a keyboard?

2. What are the function keys designed for?

3. What is a cursor and what helps move it around on the screen?

4. What is the ESCAPE key used for?

5. What keys are used for scrolling text?

6. What functions does ENTER key perform?

3.1 Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

Pointing and dragging, a touch screen, a touch pad, a touch-sensitive pad, invisible beams, a sensing greed, infrared touch technology, an interactive visitor information system, gain access, a touch-screen system, great accuracy, a grid of wires, the tip of the pen, pen strokes, handwriting recognition, a pen-based computer, a caret, unwanted text.

3.2 Read and translate the text. Write out computer terms.

POINTING DEVICES

The mouse is a pointing device that combines the traditional cursor movements with the means to select an object on the display screen. For example, when confronted with choices on a menu, you point to the selection of your choice by positioning the cursor with the mouse, and then you press a button on the mouse to select your choice. In word processing, a tech­nique called pointing and dragging can be used to select a large block of text, such as a sentence or paragraph. This is done by pointing at the first character in the sentence or paragraph and keeping a mouse button depressed while you drag the pointer to the last character in the sentence or paragraph. The result is a highlighted block of text that can be manipulated with other commands, such as move or delete.

The original mouse was part of a re­search and development effort by Doug Engelbart at the Stanford Research Insti­tute in 1967. He was working on ways to make computers easier to use and un­derstand. The original mouse was about the size of a baseball, moved on large wheels, and had three control buttons. Its appearance led to its name. The cord looked like a tail, the three buttons looked like two eyes and a nose, and the wheels elevating the body looked like feet. Today’s mice are smaller and more elegantly designed, but the name re­mains the same.

Touch technology The most natural of all pointing devices is your finger. Pointing with a finger is used in two important pointing meth­ods: touch screens and touch pads. The idea behind touch technology is to make a computer system easier to use. Touch technology senses the location of your finger as it nears or touches a screen or a touch-sensitive pad. For example, a touch screen might contain a menu with several selections. When you touch the part of the screen that corresponds to the selection of your choice, you activate the program that takes you to that selec­tion.

One method for implementing touch screens involves crisscrossing the moni­tor screen with invisible beams of infra­red light. When you touch a point on the screen, your finger interrupts the hori­zontal and vertical infrared beams. Another method involves over­laying the screen with a thin layer of plastic that has the sensing grid built into it.

Touch screens are easy to use, espe­cially in situations where you need infor­mation quickly. For example, Walt Disney’s Experimental Prototype Com­munity of Tomorrow (EPCOT) centre combines infrared touch technology with colour video monitors to create an easy-to-use interactive visitor informa­tion system. Visitors can gain access to a wide variety of information about the park, its attractions, and their locations by simply touching one of the many video monitors located throughout the centre.

Touch technology is limited because of its poor resolution. In addition, touch-screen systems are relatively expensive. Fingers are simply too large for great accuracy, so an electronic pen, also called a stylus, often has to be used to accomplish detailed work.

Pens An electronic pen utilizes radio waves to communicate with a grid of wires un­derneath a liquid-crystal display screen. Radio waves are sent to the tip of the pen and returned for position analysis. An electronic pen looks and feels like a pen yet contains no batteries or wires, and does not need to be connected to the computer. As the tip of the pen nears the screen, the location of the pen is deter­mined by which wires in the grid detect the pen. Software can then interpret the movement and meaning of the pen strokes.

Using a pen provides an alternative to the keyboard and mouse pointing de­vice because the pen can combine the functions of both devices. Instead of pointing at a command with the mouse cursor, you point at the on-screen com­mand with the pen. Scrolling is done by flicking the pen on a scroll bar. Selection is done by drawing left and right brackets with the pen. The pen also allows you to write on the screen, and software trans­lates your hand-printed or written char­acters into text through a process known as handwriting recognition.

Handwriting recognition Handwriting recognition is the pro­cess of recognizing characters (e.g., let­ters, numbers, and punctuation) printed or written on a display screen and translat­ing them into digital codes that are redisplayed as text on the screen.

The first step in the recognition pro­cess is to analyze the strokes as they are received from the pen. A shape recog­nizer tries to determine the geometry and topology of the input, and, if neces­sary, resorts to comparing input charac­ter shapes against a set of prototypes for each character.

Using a pen-based computer is similar to writing on a notepad. To take notes, for example, you would use the electronic pen to write on the display. Edit­ing the text would be accomplished in much the same manner as is done today on paper. To insert a word, you draw a caret between two words and write in your insertion. Deleting text would be as simple as drawing an X through un­wanted text. Pen-based computers can be used in settings in which desktop or portable computers with keyboards are awkward or impractical, such as meet­ings, or when standing, walking, or mov­ing about.

3.3 Give English equivalents of the following words and expressions.

Портативний комп’ютер, пристрій керування позицією, сенсорний екран, сенсорна сітка, одержати доступ, електронне перо, розпізнавання рукописного тексту, натискати клавішу, переміщування, сенсорна клавіатура, інфрачервоне світло, низька роздільна здатність, вилучати, прокручувати, вставити слово, таким же чином, вставлення/вставка, сенсорна технологія.

3.4 Give synonyms of the following verbs. Make up sentences with some of these verbs.

Accomplish, select, point, manipulate, contain, use, need, near, connect, determine.

3.5 Complete the sentences with the words from the box. You can use some words more than once.

handwriting recognition a mouse the trackball a joystick an electronic pen

  1. A pointing device that combines the traditional cursor movements with the means to select an object on the screen is called ________________.

  2. ____________________ can combine the functions of the keyboard and the mouse.

  3. ____________________ is often found in video and arcade games.

  4. The pointing device that has become popular with the widespread use of portable computers is __________________.

  5. The most common pointing device is _______________.

  6. The process of recognizing characters printed or written on a display screen is called _________________.

3.6 Here are some basic mouse actions. Match the terms in the box with the explanations below.

Click double click drag

1 . Position the pointer on something, then rapidly press and release the mouth button twice. (You do this to load the program, open a document or select text or graphics.)

2. Position the pointer on something, hold down the mouse button and move the mouse to a desired position, then release the button. Do this to move an image to a new location on the screen.

3 . Position the pointer on something, then press and release the mouse button. (You do this to place the insertion point, to choose an option, or to close a window)

3.7 Answer the questions.

  1. What is the purpose of a pointing device?

  2. What pointing devices are you familiar with?

  3. What is the origin of the mouse?

  4. How does the mouse function?

  5. What is the idea behind the touch technology?

  6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of touch technology?

  7. Is handwriting recognition software widely used today or is it still in the developing stage?

  8. What are the two methods for implementing touch screens?

  9. In what situation can pen-based computers be used?

4.1 Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

Magnetically charged ink, predominantly, visually impaired, breakthrough, technology, formidable, interlace, expose, the optical image, the greyscale scanner, tiny photoreceptors, a separate transcribing steps, approximately, a technique for compacting data, a set of external speakers, video capture board, disk storage space, interaction with computers, expressive and effective

    1. Learn key words and word-combinations.

batch-processing program – програма, що виконується в пакетному режимі

character recognition – розпізнавання символів

convert images into digital data – перетворити зображення в цифрові дані

convert scanned text into a file – перетворити сканований текст у файл

digital data – цифрові дані

digital representation – цифрове представлення

digitized image – цифрове зображення

dots per inch (dpi) – точок на дюйм

feed (v)– подавати

magnetic ink – магнітне чорнило

optical character recognition – оптичне розпізнавання символів

rectangular array of dots – прямокутний масив точок

translate characters into – перекладати символи в

4.3 Read the text about scanners. First read it all the way through. Underline the basic methods of character recognition and compare your ideas with a partner.

SCANNERS

Part1

Scanners convert optically focused im­ages, such as text, line drawings, or pho­tographs into digital representations that are suitable for processing. When an image is translated into a series of Os and Is, it can then be processed like any other digital data.

The earliest form of scanner used mag­netic-ink character recognition (MICR), a form of character recognition that reads text printed with magnetically charged ink. MICR is still predominantly used by the banking industry for processing checks. All checks contain a series of numbers printed in magnetic ink. MICR makes check processing faster and more accu­rate by capturing data directly from their source without a separate transcribing step.

Another form of scanning uses bar codes. Supermarkets use the Universal Product Code (UPC), which consists of a series of thick and thin bar codes that represent numbers. Marking products this way greatly sim­plifies the information processing asso­ciated with the sale and restocking of products.

Today, bar codes are used in factories and offices. Bar codes are even starting to show up on people. They can be found on patient identification bracelets and on employee badges in hospitals.

Optical character recognition (OCR) is the process of examining char­acters on a printed page and translating them into computer text. OCR was origi­nally designed for input to typesetting machines for the newspaper industry.

In 1976 Raymond Kurzweil intro­duced a reading machine to scan printed documents and, using electronic voice output, read them aloud to the blind or visually impaired. This OCR breakthrough technology could be trained to read the different fonts it encountered. Today there are a wide variety of OCR software interfaces be­tween scanners and personal comput­ers. These programs use various meth­ods of character recognition to convert scanned text into a file, suitable for im­port into a word processor, spreadsheet, or database program. They also interlace with most popular scanners; are able to differentiate automatically among graph­ics, text, and multiple columns; and handle such nuances as regular text versus boldface, italic, or underlined text.

Image recognition . A useful application for scanners is to capture images such as line drawings, illustrations, or photographs, and con­vert them into digital data that can be manipulated, retouched, cropped or resized, and printed.

The resolution of a scanner is defined as the number of bits per unit of measure (such as inch or centimetre), simply called dots per inch (dpi). The most common scanner resolution is 300 dots per inch. In the simplest case of scanning an image, the scanner “looks for” black or white. When it “sees” a white point, it translates the white point into a 0; when something other than white is sensed, that is translated into a 1. In this way, the optical image is converted into a digital array of Os and Is.

Compression. Digitized images require a great deal of disk storage. For example, a black-and-white 8.5-inch by 11-inch image, scanned and digitized, would require approximately 1 million bytes of storage. Adding greys or colours requires even more storage space. Compression is a technique for compacting data for more efficient storage. For example, one tech­nique permits blank lines to be replaced by codes that indicate the lines are empty. Today, compression techniques are available that can reduce the amount of storage required for an 8.5-inch by 11-inch image from 1 million to about 100,000 bytes.

4.4 Translate into English the following word-combinations so that you could form compound nouns.

Розпізнавання символів, опрацювання інформації, ідентифікаційний браслет пацієнта, комп’ютерний текст, макетування газети, програма бази даних, роздільна здатність сканера, дискова пам’ять, простір пам’яті, звукова хвиля, коефіцієнт ущільнення.

4.5 Find synonyms.

Convert, image, translate, trace, contain, precise, track, examine, face, picture, accurate, originate, cut, differentiate, transform, link, start, reduce, associate, begin, encounter, distinguish, interpret, check.

4.6 Give English equivalents.

Розпакувати дані, ущільнення даних, відтворювати цифрові дані, метод ущільнення, цифровий відеоформат, цифрове зображення, оптичне розпізнавання символів, розпізнавання зображень, точок на дюйм, сканер штрихового коду, оптичне зображення, збирати дані, відтінки сірого, керувати такими нюансами як, перетворювати сканований текст у файл .

4.7 Complete the sentences with the words from the box. You can use some words more then once.

voice input device MICR OCR bar code

  1. The use of ______ had led to a significant number of consumer protests because customers suspected secret price manipulation.

  1. _________ is the direct reading and conversion of typed or handwritten characters into computer-readable form.

  1. ______________ device reads magnetic materials embedded in designated areas on paper documents.

  2. ________ device codes information into digital form.

  3. ___________________ is used predominantly for check processing in the bank industry.

    1. Translate into English.

  1. Сканери призначені для введення в комп’ютер графічних об’єктів (малюнків, фотографій та ін.).

  1. Принцип дії сканера ґрунтується на перетворенні зображення в електричні сигнали.

  1. Основною характеристикою сканера є роздільна здатність, яка як і в дисплеях та принтерах визначається кількістю точок на дюйм.

  2. Сканери використовуються також і для введення текстової інформації.

    1. Answer the questions.

  1. What is a scanner? Give the definition in your own words.

  2. What technology is used in scanners?

  3. What was the purpose of developing MICR?

  4. What are the advantages of MICR application?

  5. In what businesses are bar codes used?

  6. What is OCR? Explain in your own words.

  7. What was OCR originally designed for?

  8. What problems are solved with help of OCR today?

  9. How is the resolution of a scanner defined?

10. Why is compression considered effective in data storage? Give the examples

  1. Read the text about sensors and give the examples of their application.

SENSORS

Sensors (sometimes called transduc­ers) are instruments capable of directly encoding a physical event into data. Sen­sors can record changes in temperature, weight, pressure, odour, and light—all of which may be useful as input to a com­puter. For example, at a computer-con­trolled traffic signal, an electronic sensor called a pressure transducer is buried under the street. It senses the flow of traffic and inputs that data to a micropro­cessor that controls the traffic lights.

Today, scientists extend their sensors beyond visible light and capture data at all bands of the electromagnetic spec­trum, including radio, infrared, ultravio­let, and X-ray wavelengths.

The traditional method of using sensors involves connecting a sensing device to a computer system. A new technique combines the computer and the sensor on the same silicon chip because silicon is sensitive to the pressures, tempera­tures, images, sounds, and smells that must be sensed. The combined chips, called smart sensors, are capable of improving the performance of sensor applications because some of the data processing occurs directly in the sensor. Just as the human eye processes much information before it sends signals to the brain, a smart sensor monitors what is being sensed and only sends a signal to a larger computer when necessary.

TEST YOURSELF

Match the following key terms to the appropriate definition or application:

A.

  1. Input

  2. Transcribed input

  3. Direct source input

  4. Keyboard

  5. Function keys

  6. Cursor movement key

  7. Pointing device

  8. Mouse

  9. Touch technology

  10. Electronic pen

  11. Handwriting recognition

  1. Keys labelled with the characters [Fl] through [F12].

  2. Composing printed characters on an LCD screen.

  3. Data that are captured by transcribing them from source documents onto another medium that is ca­pable of being input to a computer system.

  4. The use of a device to encode or transform data into digital codes that a computer can process.

  5. A device that combines the functions of a keyboard and pointing device.

  6. Data that are captured directly from their source without a separate transcribing step.

  7. Typing a lengthy word-processing document.

h. Generally interacting with a display screen.

i. Moving a cursor on the display screen.

  1. j. Obtaining information from a kiosk.

k .Pointing and dragging on a display screen.

B.

  1. Scanner

  2. Magnetic-ink character recog­nition (MICR)

  3. Bar code

  4. Optical character recognition (OCR)

  5. Compression

  6. Sensor

  7. Smart sensor

  1. Marking a product so it can be tracked in an inventory-control application.

  2. Generally examining an image and translating the image into digital images that are suitable for processing.

  3. Monitoring blood sugar levels in a diabetic person.

  4. Reading typewritten characters on paper.

  5. Processing existing checks in the banking industry.

  6. Generally encoding a physical event directly into data.

  7. Compacting data for more efficient storage.

True/False:

  1. The primary role of input is to activate or deactivate information processing.

  2. Input technology is moving toward more transcribed input.

  3. Transcribing data is a relatively error-free process.

  4. A major drawback to using a keyboard is lack of speed.

  5. Word wrap eliminates the need for cursor movement keys.

  6. Touch screens rely on the use of a mouse as a pointing device.

  7. Electronic pens use light waves to communicate with the display screen.

  8. A pen or stylus can replace the function of both a keyboard and a mouse.

  9. Bar codes are useful in inventory-control applica­tions.

  10. The process of recognizing general human speech is called word recognition.

Multiple choice

  1. One device that can eliminate the step of keying in data is called a (an)

  1. Key-to-disk machine.

  2. Optical scanner.

  3. Keypunch machine.

  4. Electronic cash register.

  1. The single biggest cause of mis­takes in data input is

  1. Point-of-sale terminals.

  2. Keying in the data.

  3. Source documents.

  4. Human error.

  1. A computer-controlled traffic signal uses

  1. Sensing.

  2. Scanning.

  3. Thermostats.

  4. Training.

  1. Optical character-recognition (OCR) software can read

  1. Magnetically encoded numbers.

  2. Any combination of numbers or letters.

  3. Bar codes in supermarkets.

  4. Specially coded characters or patterns.

  1. The most widely used input device is a

  1. Mouse.

  2. Keyboard.

  3. Sensor.

  4. Camera.

  1. Mice are used to replace

  1. Bar codes.

  2. Touch screens.

  3. Keyboards.

  4. Cursor movement keys.

Unit 5

OUTPUT

  1. Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

An information-processing application, an output device, capabilities and limitations, graphic animation, strike a ribbon, hard-copy devices, a column of steel pins, multicoloured ribbons, produce text in several colours, draft-quality text, a pen carriage, subtractive primary colours, a quiet operation, mathematical descriptions, a sharper image.

1.2. Learn key words and word-combinations.

bitmap – бітове зображення символу

bold (adj) – жирний

bubble-jet printer – пристрій струменевого друку

cyan (adj) – голубувато-зелений

dot-matrix printer – матричний принтер

draft quality – чернетковий

emit (v) – випромінювати; випускати

hard copy – роздрук

hue (n) – відтінок

impact (adj) – контактний

ink cartridge – касета з чорнилом

inkjet printer – пристрій струменевого друку

italic (adj) – курсивний

LED printer – електрографічний друкарський пристрій зі світлодіодами

line printer – пристрій друку рядками

magenta (adj) – червоний

near-letter quality – середня якість друку

nonimpact (adj)– безконтактний

nozzle (n) – сопло

outline - структура текстового документу; організація (тексту) ,"каркас" тексту; состав текста– схема, план

page printer –пристрій друку сторінками

page-description language – мова опису сторінок

pin (n) – контактний штир

plotter – графобудівник

polygon – багатокутник

print head – друкувальна головка

printer – друкарський пристрій, принтер

scaling – масштабування

soft copy – зображення на екрані дисплея.

underline – підкреслювати

1. 3 Read and translate the text.

PRINTERS

Part I

Although the information-processing application itself determines what the content of the output will be, the format of the output depends, in part, on the output device. For example, in the case of generating a simple report, the choices include

Which type of output to use is a deci­sion that depends on the desired use of the information, the cost of producing that information, and whether the re­quired technology is available. When se­lecting an output device, it is useful to understand the classifications of differ­ent output devices along with their capa­bilities and limitations. Output from a computer system comes in hard copy, soft copy, or ma­chine-readable form.

Hard copy refers to the recording of letters, graphics, or pictures on a hard medium, such as paper or film. Ex­amples of hard copy include printing, drawing lines with a plotter, or photo­graphically recording an impression on film or microfilm.

Soft copy refers to the use of elec­tronic signals to display a temporary im­age on a surface such as a video screen..

The most common hard-copy devices are printers. There are some common characteristics that should be examined when matching a printer to an application. They include:

Printers are classified into two broad categories: impact and non-impact.

The most common type of impact printer is the dot-matrix printer. The essential part of a dot-matrix printer is a print head, which contains a column of steel pins. Images are formed by driving various combinations of pins against a ribbon and onto the paper.

A dot-matrix printer can print images as well as text. Because characters or images are pro­duced by a selected pattern of dots, these printers can also change the size and style of characters and add emphasis such as bold, italic, or underlining. Modern printers can produce text and graph­ics in several colours.

The speed of dot-matrix printers var­ies considerably depending on what is being printed and the model of the printer. The higher the quality, the slower the speed.

Line printers are another class of impact printers, which are used prima­rily in large computer installations for high-speed printing of reports and forms. Unlike slower printers that print only one character at a time, these print­ers set up an entire line of print at once. Although they still print character by character or dot by dot, the process hap­pens so fast that it appears to be printing one line at a time.

A plotter is an output device that pro­duces an image on paper by controlling the motion of a pen carriage that draws lines. The plotter sees the output me­dium of paper as a series of X, Y coordi­nates. If you plotted similar coordinates on a piece of graph paper and drew lines connecting the points, you would have an approximate visual metaphor for how a plotter draws lines. The computer sys­tem sends the plotter a series of num­bers representing^, ^’coordinates in the desired pattern. The pen carriage then moves to the different positions while holding the pen on the surface of the paper. Curves are drawn by linking a series of very short straight lines to­gether.

Printers

Part 2.

Another category of printers is non-impact printers. They operate on the same dot-forming principle as the dot-matrix printer; however, instead of using an impact mechanism, they use nozzles, heat, electricity, magnetism, or optical methods to transfer an image onto paper.

Inkjet printers form characters or graphics with a print head containing tiny nozzles or jets that spray drops of ink onto the paper. The effect is similar to dot-matrix printing.

While printing colour images, an inkjet printer uses a separate nozzle and ink cartridge for each of the three subtractive primary colours—cyan (dark blue), magenta, and yellow—plus a fourth for black, up to six different hues can be printed. The colour inkjet printer is an improvement over the problems of ribbons with multiple colour bands that are required for colour dot-matrix print­ers. Very expensive inkjet printers pro­duce high-quality colour, which is well suited for low-volume publishing, proof copies and overhead transparencies.

Other advantages of inkjet printers include quiet operation and high reliability, thanks mainly to fewer moving parts. A possible disadvan­tage is the problem of nozzle clogging.

A variation of the inkjet printer is called a bubble-jet printer. With bubble-jet technology, the printing element is a computer chip with miniature openings, each with its own heating element. By heating the ink and forcing it through the opening, a small bubble is created. The bubble makes a more precise mark on the paper with less scattering of ink droplets than a conventional inkjet printer. The result is a sharper image.

Laser printers create images with a laser beam scanning across an electri­cally charged drum. As in a copier, toner or ink with an opposite charge sticks to the drum and is then transferred to pa­per by pressure and heat to create the finished image.

Laser printers offer near-typeset-quality text, medium-resolution graphics ca­pabilities, and higher speed than con­ventional impact or non-impact printers. All can mix type styles and sizes as well as graphic images on the same page.

Laser printers are quite different from conventional printers. They contain their own built-in microprocessor and RAM and ROM memories in order to produce high print speed and resolu­tion.

A close cousin of the laser printer uses an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instead of the beam of light emitted by a laser. LED printers feature a simpler de­sign than laser printers, which translates into higher reliability and lower costs.

Page-descrip­ tion languages. A difference among laser printers is whether characters are produced by us­ing selected patterns of dots, called bitmaps, or by using mathematical de­scriptions, called outlines. Printers that feature the latter use a page-descrip­ tion language—a language that is used to describe output to a printer or display device.

The language includes commands for describing individual character shapes, drawing lines and polygons, and scaling (i.e., making an object appear larger or smaller). When you print on a printer that is equipped with a page description-language, the language takes care of the behind-the-scenes technical details. It constructs a program describing the pages and sends it to the printer. When the printer receives the program, it ex­ecutes the commands and produces the output. The result is more precise con­trol over the way each page is printed and improved quality of the output.

    1. Give English equivalents:

Ряд контактних штирів, змінювати розмір і стиль літер, швидкісне друкування, принципи формування символів, крихітні сопла, картридж з тонером, основні кольори, різні відтінки, висока надійність, традиційний струменевий принтер, протилежний заряд, переносити на папір, пристрій друку сторінками, роздільна здатність від 300 до 600 точок на дюйм, нагрівальний елемент.

    1. Fill in the blanks with the words from the text.

  1. Dot-matrix printers use ____________ to print the dots required to shape a character.

  2. Laser printers scan the image with ____________ and transfer it to paper with a special ink powder.

  3. _______________ are used for engineering drawings and other technical illustrations.

  4. Ink-jet printers form characters with ____________ containing tiny nozzles that spray drops of ink onto paper.

  5. The most common type of ______________ is the dot-matrix printer.

  6. Ink-jet printers are quieter than ______________ printers.

    1. Put the verb into the correct form.

  1. An ink-jet printer ______________ by projecting small ink droplets onto paper. (operate)

  2. Images or characters ______________ by a selected pattern of dots. (produce)

  3. Curves _______________ by linking a series of very short lines together. (draw)

  4. Images _______________ by driving various combinations of pins against a ribbon and onto paper. (form)

  1. a) Compare impact and non-impact printers. Talk about their: speed, memory, resolution,

service, price, noise. You can use the adjectives from the box.

fast slow high / low quality noisy quiet cheap

expensive reliable sharp

b)Now write a short text about the pros and cons of a printer or printers you use. Write about these aspects: type, speed, cost, noise, output quality.

c) Give information on the following types of printers: a thermal printer, a ball printer, a duplex printer, an electrostatic printer , a label printer , a local printer , a multifunction printer , a network printer.

1.8 Read the passage and choose the best answer to each question.

The quality of the graphics output on a computer printer is measured in dpi. Simply by changing the density of dots that make up each part of an image, the printer can produce graphics that looks almost photographic. To understand how this works, consider how a black-and-white photograph shows the shades which, in real life, are colours. Each colour is a different shade of grey. For graphics to be produced on the computer printer, a piece of software called a printer driver decides upon a dot of pattern which will represent each colour shade. These different patterns or textures create an individual effect which your eye translates into grey shade. The closer you look at the image, the less lifelike it looks.

1. 9 According to the passage, a computer printer can

(A) measure dots per inch

(B) change photographs

(C) look photographic

(B) produce pictures

2. Graphics are like black-and white photographs in that

  1. they are produced by computers

  2. a dot pattern is decided by printer driver

  3. each colour is seen as a different shade of grey

  4. they each create an individual effect

3.According to the passage, the graphics image

(A) is an exact reproduction of the photograph

(B) has the same quality as a photograph

(C) loses its natural look when viewed close-up

  1. changes the density of dots

2.0 Answer the questions.

  1. What categories are printers classified into?

  2. What type of copies (soft or hard) do printers produce?

  3. What type of printers is the most popular today?

  4. What are advantages of dot-matrix printers?

  5. How does a dot-matrix printer operate?

  6. What type of printers has fewer moving parts?

  7. How does a laser printer create images?

  8. What is a plotter used for?

  9. How do laser printers differ from conventional printers?

2.1 Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

Display technologies, liquid-filled display surface, ambient light, backlight, continuous surfaces, the intersection of a row and column, a grid of columns and rows, meet the needs, an electron beam, eyestrain and fatigue, flicker-free images, lack of clarity, increase, decrease, the inside phosphor-coated surface, overlap, a very narrow range of viewing angles.

2.2 Learn key words and word-combinations.

aliasing(n) – ступінчастість

cathode ray tube (CRT) – електронно-променева трубка

heat dissipation - тепловіддача

display adapter – адаптер дисплея

display screen – екран дисплея

dot pitch - розмір точки

grid(n) – сітка

high-end – потужний, професійний

liquid-crystal display (LCD) – дисплей на рідких кристалах

refresh rate – частота оновлення

resolution(n) – роздільна здатність

substrate (n) – підложка, основа

VGA (video graphic array) – відеографічний адаптер

video coprocessor – відео співпроцесор

  1. Read and translate the text.

DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY

There are a wide variety of display tech­nologies ranging from inexpensive displays to high-end colour stereoscopic displays. There are some common characteristics that should be examined when matching a display to an application. They include

A video display is a subsystem that consists of two components: a display adapter and a display screen. The dis­play adapter acts as a channel of commu­nication between the computer and the display screen. It contains built-in video memory that stores the images for the display screen. The greater the complex­ity of the images to be displayed, the more memory required. It also contains its own processor, sometimes called a video coprocessor.

A display divides the screen into a grid of rows and columns. The intersection of a row and column on the screen is called a pixel, short for picture element. It is the smallest unit of display. Resolution re­fers to the number of pixels displayed across and down on the display screen. The more pixels on the screen, the finer the quality and detail of the image. An­other measure of resolution is the size of the pixel, called a dot pitch. The smaller the pixels, the sharper the quality of the displayed image.

Aliasing. Because display images consist of pix­els arranged in rows and columns in­stead of continuous surfaces, the prob­lem of aliasing—the jagged or stair step appearance of the edges of diagonal lines or curves—must be resolved. Higher resolution solves part of the problem, but anti-aliasing techniques have been developed that shade or colour neighbouring pixels along an edge to make the transition between light and dark less visible.

Video Graphics Array. Because of advances in display tech­nology, resolution continues to increase.. There are several stan­dard resolutions that have evolved to meet the needs of various applications. Video Graphics Array (VGA), a standard developed by IBM in 1987, offers a minimum 640-by-480-pixel resolution.

VGA has been enhanced by a standard called Super VGA, which can display im­ages at two resolutions: 800 by 600 pix­els, and 1024 by 768 pixels.

Extended Graphics Array (XGA ), introduced in 1991, is an IBM extension of VGA that offers 1280-by-1024-pixel resolution and up to 32,768 simultaneous colours.

Ultra Extended Graphics Array (UXGA) supports resolution 1600x1200 pixels.

VGA resolution both use the same number of pixels, so the smaller image always looks better.

TYPES OF DISPLAYS

CRT Display. Video display can be accomplished by a cathode ray tube (CRT), commonly used in television sets. Display on a CRT screen is accomplished by an electron beam that scans across and down the screen, and then returns to the upper left-hand corner to repeat the process. The technique leaves points of light on the inside phosphor-coated surface of the tube. The beam current is either increased to make a lighter point (pixel) or decreased to make a darker point (pixel) along each of the scan lines.

The display creates a complete image 80 times per second (80 Hz). A drawback to this refresh rate is that in many applications, the screen flickers causing eyestrain and fatigue. This problem can be eliminated by in­creasing the refresh rate (usually to 70 or 80 Hz) to create flicker-free images. Gen­erally, the higher the refresh rate, the higher the cost of the display.

CRTs use three separate elec­tron beams that represent the primary additive colours, red, blue, and green. The beams are focused so that their dot pat­terns slightly overlap on the screen to create the desired colours.

Nowadays CRTs are being ousted by liquid crystal displays (LCDs).

Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). The most common type of flat panel is the liquid crystal display (LCD)—a liquid-filled display surface that, when electrically charged, creates images us­ing ambient light. The historical drawback to LCDs has been their lack of clarity. Because early LCDs produced no light of their own but instead relied on reflected light for viewing, they had a very narrow range of viewing angles and could only be seen clearly if you looked at them straight on. To compensate for this deficiency, manufacturers are dealing with the problem in several ways. The first is to backlight the LCD by adding lights that shine through the LCD screen from be­hind, thus providing a clearer image. The second is to build LCDs with supertwist crystals, which refract or twist the light to provide much higher con­trast (e.g., darker characters against a lighter background). Higher contrast also makes a wider viewing angle pos­sible when looking at the display. The third is to place a transistor at each pixel location on the display. This technique, known as active-matrix technology, produces a high-contrast display at the cost of consuming more power.

Active-matrix technology. Active-matrix LCDs depend on thin film transistors (TFT). Basically, TFTs are tiny switching transistors and capacitors. They are arranged in a matrix on a glass substrate. To address a particular pixel, the proper row is switched on, and then a charge is sent down the correct column. Since all of the other rows that the column intersects are turned off, only the capacitor at the designated pixel receives a charge. The capacitor is able to hold the charge until the next refresh cycle. And if we carefully control the amount of voltage supplied to a crystal, we can make it untwist only enough to allow some light through. By doing this in very exact, very small increments, LCDs can create a gray scale. Most displays today offer 256 levels of brightness per pixel.

Plasma displays Plasma display technology is a new emissive" flat panel technology which gives the rich accurate colour fidelity of conventional Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors in a large plasma display that is thin enough to hang on the wall. It's the best way to achieve flat panel display with excellent image quality and large screen sizes viewable in any environment. This plasma display technology known as “ plasma vision " is an array of cells, known as pixels, which are composed of 3 sub-pixels, corresponding to the colours red, green and blue. Gas in plasma state is to react with phosphors in each sub-pixel to produce coloured light (red, green or blue). These phosphors are the same types used in conventional cathode ray tube (CRT) devices such as televisions and standard computer monitor displays. You get the rich, dynamic colours you expect from plasma display. Each subpixel is individually controlled by advanced electronics to produce over 16 million different colours.

TFT panels Using the latest technology such as PVA (patterned vertical alignment) TFT panels offer fast response time, 170-degree viewing angles, high brightness and enhanced contrast to give the optimum solution.

Coupled with DT's interface solutions (RGB, video, and DVI), single board computer (SBC), and touchscreen options customers can source exactly the solutions they need.

There is a huge replacement market for plasma screens that have suffered from image burn-in, unreliable fans and heat dissipation issues, whereas TFTs offer higher resolution, lower power, reduced weight, no burn-in, as well as excellent viewing angles, higher brightness and contrast.

Although still more expensive than plasma, many companies have now calculated that the TFT LCD still offers a lower-cost long-term option than plasma. TFTs have a 5 year plus lifetime expectancy plus replaceable backlights possible whereas plasma needs often to be replaced after only around 2 years. The lifetime costs are in fact lower for TFT than plasma, plus they offer many advantages. TFTs are ready to oust plasma eventually to a relatively niche application product.

2.4 Give English equivalents.

Вбудована пам’ять, частота оновлення, щоб компенсувати цей недолік, за рахунок, порівнянно з, задовольняти потреби, кольоровий монітор, перетин рядів і стовпців, завдяки досягненням, повне зображення, накладатися один на один, викривлювати, бажаний колір, сумісний, включати в систему плату, розташовувати рядками і стовпцями.

2.5 Translate into English the following sentences using the… the… (with two comparatives) to say that one thing depends on another thing. Find the sentences with such a structure in the text.

  1. Чим більше пікселів на екрані, тим краща якість зображення.

  2. Чим менше розмір екрану, тим чіткіше зображення.

  3. Чим вища роздільна здатність, тим більша вартість дисплея.

    1. Translate the following sentences into English.

  1. Кількість точок по горизонталі та вертикалі, які монітор здатний відтворити чітко й роздільно, називається його роздільною здатністю.

  1. Важливою характеристикою монітора є частота оновлення зображення

  1. Кращі моделі моніторів забезпечують частоту оновлення до 200 Гц

  2. Чим вища частота оновлення, тим менше буде помітно мерехтіння і менше будуть втомлюватися очі під час роботи з монітором.

  3. Розмір точки – це відстань по вертикалі між центрами сусідніх точок на екрані монітора у мм.

7.Рідкі кристали можуть змінювати свою молекулярну структуру, що дозволяє з допомогою електричних сигналів управляти світловим потоком, який проходить через них.

    1. Fill in the blanks with the words from the text.

  1. The total number of pixels displayed across and down on the display screen is known as ___________.

  2. _____________ of the monitor is very similar to that of a TV set.

  3. The monitor is controlled by a separate circuit board known as the ___________.

  4. Portable computers use a flat _____________ .

  5. Three separate electron beams represent the three primary colours: ____________.

2.8 Read the passage and compare passive matrix and active-matrix LCDs.

Passive-matrix LCDs use a simple grid to supply the charge to a particular pixel on the display. Creating the grid is quite a process! It starts with two glass layers called substrates. One substrate is given columns and the other is given rows made from a transparent conductive material. This is usually indium-tin oxide. The rows or columns are connected to integrated circuits that control when a charge is sent down a particular column or row. The liquid crystal material is sandwiched between the two glass substrates, and a polarizing film is added to the outer side of each substrate. To turn on a pixel, the integrated circuit sends a charge down the correct column of one substrate and a ground activated on the correct row of the other. The row and column intersect at the designated pixel, and that delivers the voltage to untwist the liquid crystals at that pixel.

The simplicity of the passive-matrix system is beautiful, but it has significant drawbacks, notably slow response time and imprecise voltage control. Response time refers to the LCD's ability to refresh the image displayed. The easiest way to observe slow response time in a passive-matrix LCD is to move the mouse pointer quickly from one side of the screen to the other. You will notice a series of "ghosts" following the pointer. Imprecise voltage control hinders the passive matrix's ability to influence only one pixel at a time. When voltage is applied to untwist one pixel, the pixels around it also partially untwist, which makes images appear fuzzy and lacking in contrast.

    1. Put the verb into the correct form.

  1. What is the importance of pixel resolution?

  2. What unit of frequency is used to measure the refresh rate of a monitor?

  3. What is the most common display?

  4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of LCD and CRT displays?

  5. What is the main drawback of LCDs? What are the ways of its elimination?

  6. In what way is the problem of aliasing solved?

TEST YOURSELF

Match the following key terms to the appropriate definition:

A.

  1. Output device

  2. Hard copy

  3. Soft copy

  4. Impact printer

  5. Dot-matrix printer

  6. Line printer

a. A printer that uses a combination of a striking mecha­nism and a ribbon to transfer images onto paper.

b. A device that decodes coded symbols into a form of information that is easy for people to use or under­stand.

c. The recording of an image on a medium such as paper or film.

d. A printer that sets up an entire line of print at once.

e. The recording of an image on a medium such as a display screen.

f. A printer that uses a selected pattern of dots transferred by impact.

B.

  1. Nonimpact printer

  2. Ink-jet printer

  3. Laser printer

  4. Page-description language

  5. Plotter

  6. Resolution

  7. Aliasing

  1. A printer that uses a laser to record an impression on a drum.

  2. A device that produces an image by controlling the motion of a pen carriage.

  3. A printer that uses nozzles, heat, electricity, magne­tism, or optical methods to transfer images onto paper.

  4. A language that is used to describe output to a printer or display device.

  5. A printer that uses a selected pattern of dots transferred by spraying droplets of ink.

  6. The number of pixels displayed across and down on the display screen.

  7. The jagged or stair step appearance of the edges of diago­nal lines or curves.

True/False:

  1. The information-processing application determines the format of the output.

  2. The advantages of hard copy stem from our familiarity with paper.

  3. The most common form of printer is the dot-matrix printer.

  4. Nonimpact printers operate on the same dot-forming principle as dot-matrix printers.

  5. Because of more moving parts, inkjet printers are noisier and less reliable than dot-matrix printers.

  6. High-speed dot-matrix printers are an alternative to line printers.

  7. To achieve higher print speeds, magnetic or optical technology is used to replace mechanical technology.

  8. Laser printers are quite different from conven­tional printers.

  9. Cathode ray tubes (CRTs) are the most common form of video display.

  10. A video display consists of an adapter and a screen.

  11. A display divides the screen into a grid of rows and columns.

  12. A 10-foot projection screen has more pixels than a 10-inch screen.

Multiple Choice:

  1. Which of the following is not a major type of computer output?

  1. Voice.

  2. Text.

  3. Images.

  4. Content.

  1. An impact printer's name is derived from

  1. Having the same print quality as an electric typewriter.

  2. Transferring a pattern of dots to the paper.

  3. Transferring a whole or partial character by striking a ribbon.

  4. Using heat to transfer an image onto paper.

  1. The intersection of a row and column on a display screen is called

  1. Pixel.

  2. Cell.

  3. Resolution.

  4. Dot pitch.

  1. Nonimpact printing is an important technology because it

  1. Is primarily a high-speed method of printing.

  2. Is a lower-cost technology.

  3. Is the simplest way of colour printing.

  4. Can produce output on microfiche.

  1. Laser printing derives its flexibility from

  1. Transferring images onto specially treated paper.

  2. Its use of sophisticated me­chanical technology.

  3. An embedded microprocessor in the printer.

  4. Its lack of moving parts.

Unit 6

PROCESSORS AND MEMORIES

1.1 Read and translate the following words and expressions.

A functional unit, a unique set of operations, the instruction set, a step–by–step operation, a regular heartbeat, the operation of the processor, an original instruction, the entire computer system, logical and computational capabilities, a current instruction, the size of pathways, the specific requirements, a specific integrated –circuit chip, controller functions, graphics processing.

1.2 Learn key words and word – combinations.

application – specific integrated circuit (ASIC) – спеціалізована інтегральна схема

arithmetic /logic unit (ALU) – арифметично –логічний пристрій

carry out the instruction – виконувати команду

central processing unit (CPU) – центральний процесор

clock(n) – годинник: тактовий генератор

computer speed – швидкодія комп’ютера

control unit – пристрій керування

DSP (digital signal processor) – процесор цифрового опрацювання сигналів

execute (v) – виконувати

heartbeat (n) – тактовий імпульс

instruction set – набір команд

interrupt (n) – переривання

machine instruction – машинна команда

machine language – машинна мова

operand (n) – операнд

operation(n) – команда; операція

pathways (n) – приватна шина

peripheral (n) – зовнішній пристрій

register (n) – регістр

resume (v) – продовжувати; відновлювати

retrieve(v) – знаходити, вилучати

step-by-step – покроковий

storage location – комірка пам’яті

timer (n) – таймер; годинник

word size – довжина слова

workspace (n) – робоча ділянка

1.3 Read and translate the text.

WHAT IS A PROCESSOR?

A processor , also called a central processing unit or CPU, is a functional unit that interprets and carries out instructions. This is the central nervous system of the computer, and it is often contrasted to the devices that surround the processor and memory, such as keyboards, display screens and disk which are known as peripherals. Every processor comes with a unique set of operations such as ADD, STORE, or LOAD that represent the processor instruction set. Computer designers are fond of calling their computers machines, so the instruction set is sometimes referred to as machine instructions and the binary language in which they are written is called machine language.

An instruction is made up of operations that specify the function to be performed and operands that represent the data to be manipulated. For example, if an instruction is to perform the operation of adding two numbers, it must know (1) what the two numbers are and (2) where the two numbers are. When the numbers are stored in the computer's memory, they have an address to indicate where they are, so if an operand refers to data in the computer's memory, it is called an address. The processor's job is to retrieve instructions and data from memory and to perform each operation. Having done that, it signals memory to send it the next instruction.

This step-by-step operation is repeated over and over again at speeds measured in millionths of a second. A timer called a clock releases precisely timed electrical signals that provide a regular heartbeat for the processor's work. Megahertz (MHz), which means million cycles per second, are used to measure the computer speed. For example, in a 50-MHz processor, the computer's clock ticks 50 million times every second.

A processor is composed of two functional units—a control unit and an arithmetic/logic unit—as well as a set of special workspaces called registers.

The control unit is the functional unit that is responsible for supervising the operation of the processor. It makes the connections between various functional units of the computer system. It calls into operation each unit that is required by the program currently in operation. While working the processor can be interrupted. An interrupt is a signal that tells the processor to put aside what it is doing and transfer control to another instruction. The processor resumes its original instruction when the interrupt is finished.

The control unit retrieves instructions from memory and determines their type or decodes them. It then breaks each instruction into a series of simple small steps or actions. By doing this, it controls the step-by-step operation of the entire computer system.

The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) is the functional unit that provides the computer with logical and computational capabilities. Data are brought into the ALU by the control unit, and the ALU performs whatever arithmetic or logic operations are required to help carry out the instruction.

Arithmetic operations include adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing. Logic operations make a comparison and take action based on the results. For example, two numbers might be compared to determine whether they are equal. If they are equal, processing will continue; if they are not equal, processing will switch to another instruction.

A register is a storage location inside the processor. Registers in the control unit are used to keep track of the overall status of the program that is running. Control unit registers store information such as the current instruction, the location of the next instruction to be executed, and the operands of the instruction. In the ALU, registers store data items that are added, subtracted, multiplied, divided, and compared. Other registers store the results of arithmetic and logic operations.

An important factor that affects the speed and performance of a processor is the size and number of the registers. Technically, the term word size (also called word length) describes the size of an operand register, but it is also used more loosely to describe the size of the pathways to and from the processor. Currently, word sizes in computers range from 16 to 64 bits. If the operand registers of a processor are 32 bits wide, the processor is said to be a 32-bit processor.

Some processors are designed to add additional functions to the central processor. Math coprocessors relieve the central processor of the intensive numeric calculations required in scientific and technical applications. Due to advances in technology coprocessors are located on the central processor chip.Digital signal processors (DSPs) assist the central processor in working with sound, speech, music, and image processing.

Other processors are designed to fill the specific requirements of an application. These processors are based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC). An early example of a product that uses an ASIC is the digital wrist-watch. The functions that a wristwatch performs are simple and easy to understand. Although a general-purpose processor could easily handle the functions of a watch, there is no need to do so, as it is much more economical to develop a specific integrated-circuit chip to do the job. A more recent example of ASIC combines all of the electronics of a personal computer (excluding microprocessor and memory) in a single chip. Today's specialized processor chips permit designers to build large amounts of computing power into all sorts of products, such as controller functions in appliances and automobiles, computer networking, speech recognition and synthesis, and graphics processing.

1.4. Complete the sentences with the words from the box.

the Control Unit the ALU registers the CPU a clock MHz

  1. ________ performs mathematical calculations and logical operations.

  2. The high-speed units of memory used to store and control information are called ________ .

  3. ________ examines the instructions in the user’s program, interprets each instruction and the rest of the components to be activated to execute the functions specified.

  1. ________ provides pulses at fixed intervals to measure and synchronize circuits and units.

  2. The clock speed is measured in ________ and refers to the frequency at which pulses are emitted.

  3. ________ controls the interpretation and execution of computer instructions. It functions by breaking down a complex task into a number of discrete, simple steps.

    1. Put the verb into the correct form.

1. The speed of the microprocessor ________in MHz. (measure)

  1. The CPU ________ into a single microprocessor chip. (build)

  2. The first microcomputers, also known as PCs, ________ for single users only, and this clearly ________ them from minicomputers. (be, distinguish)

  3. Today the division between “minis” and “micros” ________. (disappear)

1.6 Use the information in the text and match the terms in the box with the appropriate explanation or definition below.

the CPU a clock a register peripherals an interrupt machine language

  1. Physical units attached to the computer.

  2. The “brain” of the computer.

  3. A high –speed unit of memory used to store and control information.

  4. The binary language in which the instructions are written.

  5. A signal that causes a processor to suspend the current instruction and transfer control to another instruction.

  6. A computer circuit that uses regular electrical pulses to trigger time and synchronize various events within a computer.

1.7 Answer the questions.

  1. What is the nerve centre of the computer?

  2. What functions does the CPU perform?

  3. What devices are called peripherals?

  4. What parts does the CPU consist of?

  5. What is the Control Unit responsible for?

  6. How important is an interrupt in the computer’s operation?

  7. What functional unit provides the computer with logical and computational capabilities?

  8. What units of memory are responsible for storing and controlling information?

  9. What does the abbreviation ASIC stand for?

2.1 Read and translate the following words and expressions.

A series of sells, a piece of information, storage capacity, electrical refreshing, memory cells, a two –dimensional array, a grid of rows and columns, a bus –oriented computer, the size of available memory, a variable –length piece of memory, a fixed –length piece of memory, a memory management technique.

2.2 Learn key words and word –combinations.

access time – тривалість доступу

access speed – швидкість доступу

accessibility (n) – доступність

address bus – адресна шина

cache(n) – швидкодіюча буферна пам’ять; кеш –пам’ять

cell (n) – комірка

control bus – контрольна шина

data bus – шина даних

DDR (Direct Disk Recorder) – пристрій прямого запису на диск

DRAM (dynamic RAM) – динамічна оперативна пам’ять

memory hierarchy – ієрархія пам’яті

memory(n) – пам’ять

nonvolatile(adj) – енергонезалежний

paging – сторінкова організація

RAM disk – псевдодиск; віртуальний диск

RAM(random access memory) – оперативна пам’ять

ROM(read –only memory) – ПЗП; постійна пам’ять

routine (n) – операція

segmentation (n) – сегментація

storage capacity – місткість запам’ятовувального пристрою

swap (v) – перевантажувати

transfer (n) – передача (даних); пересилання; перехід

volatile (adj) – енергозалежний

2.3 Read and translate the text.

WHAT IS A MEMORY?

A processor cannot store all the information it needs while running a program, thus it depends on memory. Memory can be thought of as a series of cells, with each cell storing a piece of information. That piece of information is known as a byte. Memories are often rated in terms of their information storage capacity, which is usually measured in millions of bytes.

Memories are generally classified by the nature of the accessibility of the information and are divided into two major categories: random-access memory (RAM) and read-only memory (ROM).

Random-access memory (RAM) is a type of memory that can be read from or written to. Most RAM is actually dynamic RAM or DRAM (pronounced dee-ram). It is dynamic because it is constantly being refreshed with electrical pulses. Dynamic RAM loses its contents without constant electrical refreshing. There is a type of RAM, called static RAM, that needs very little power for refreshing, but it is not as widely used because it is more costly to produce. Because most RAM is dynamic, it is said to be volatile; that is, it loses its contents when the electric power is shut off.

Random access means that the cells of a RAM memory are organized so that the access time for any one cell is the same as that for any other cell. This is accomplished by arranging the memory cells in a two-dimensional array, in much the same way that a spreadsheet is arranged as a grid of rows and columns. Then a memory cell can be accessed by supplying an address that contains the row and column numbers of that cell.

Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of memory that can be read from but cannot be written to or altered. ROM is static or nonvolatile; that is, it retains its contents when the electric power is shut off. ROM can be used to store programs that perform specialized routines. For example, a portion of ROM might contain a program that performs division, so that when a program executes a DIVIDE instruction, it is actually executed using instructions in the ROM memory.

A bus is a circuit that provides a path for transferring information between two or more devices. In a bus-oriented computer, the processor, memory, and the input and output devices are connected by a set of three buses. When instructions and data share the same memory, they travel to and from the processor and memory over a common data bus. A second bus, called an address bus, carries the memory addresses in which specific data needed for instructions can be found. A third bus, called a control bus, is used to signal the various parts to transfer information and to signal the processor when the transfer is completed.

Memory management. In addition to physically larger and faster memories, several techniques permit memory to be used more advantageously. One such technique is virtual memory, which creates the illusion of a computer with more memory than it actually has by moving some data to disk. When a program needs to be larger than the size of available memory, the program is divided into a number of pieces. To run such a program, the first piece is brought into memory and executes until another piece of the program is needed. Then the second piece is brought in, and so on. The pieces into which a program is divided are called segments and pages. A segment is a variable-length piece of memory that a program allocates, whereas a page is a fixed-length piece of memory.

Segmentation is a memory management technique for allocating and addressing memory. Segments also provide structure (a program can consist of a collection of segments) and protection (other programs cannot access those segments). A segment is a convenient unit to swap into and out of memory, but because segments are of variable length, managing them in memory and on disk is complex and time-consuming. To overcome these problems, an additional technique called paging is used.

Paging is a memory management technique for mapping virtual addresses on disk to real addresses in memory. A program or segment that appears to be a single large piece of memory may actually be scattered throughout real memory in pages. The system handles segmentation and paging in such a way that the distinction between memory and the disk is invisible to the program.

Caching. A cache (pronounced cash) is SRAM . It is a high speed memory that speeds up the processing of memory to the CPU. It attempts to predict what instruction is about to be used.

It is a bridge between the CPU and slower main memory. Cache is available in two different types, asynchronous and synchronous. Asynchronous cache is not synchronized with the processor. This means the processor has to wait for the data in cache to be ready before it can be retrieved. Synchronous cache is synchronized with the processor, and therefore there is no delay between the cache and the processor. In general the difference would be very hard to notice, but go with synchronous if you have the choice.

The CPU cannot retain much data because of the limited capacity of its internal registers. This means that the processor must continually exchange data with main memory. This process slows system operation considerably particularly if the CPU is operating faster internally than it does externally, for example, a 486DX/4 operates at 99MHz internally but memory access is performed at 33MHz. A technique called Caching is used to solve this problem.

There are two basic approaches to caching:

  1. Internal Cache: An additional storage area is included inside the microprocessor chip itself so access is at the internal speed of the processor. This additional (cache) memory is controlled by circuitry called a cache controller. When the processor requires data from main memory, a copy is placed in the internal cache. If the processor requires this data again, it can be fetched from the cache instead of from main memory. The cache controller also fetches additional (sequential) data along with the requested data in anticipation that it will be eventually needed by the processor. This technique, called read-ahead caching - speeds memory access considerably.

  2. Secondary (External) Cache: Recall, a PCs main memory is DRAM which has relatively slow access time. When memory can't supply data fast enough to the CPU, the processor must pause for one (or more) clock cycle causing non-productive wait states. A single wait state slows data transfer rates by 50%. To minimise this problem, most modern computers install secondary cache memory consisting of the faster SRAM devices. An external cache controller chip is required to manipulate the secondary cache.

Today, most computer systems use a memory hierarchy, that is, a series of levels of memory ranked one above the another on the basis of speed of access. Visualize a pyramid with a processor at the very top. At the next lower level of the hierarchy is the cache. At the next lower level is RAM memory, and beneath that is a RAM disk—a reserved section of relatively slow RAM that is used to store information normally located on an even slower disk. At the bottom of the pyramid is disk storage.

The memory hierarchy works as follows. A large program is divided into pages. The cache memory stores the most often used pages, the RAM memory and RAM disk will store the next most often used pages, and the least used pages are stored on disk. The combination of techniques can speed up processing because the number of times the program has to fetch instructions and data from RAM and disk memory is reduced.

  1. Give synonyms of the following words.

Divide, major, need, alter, perform, instruction, connect, complete, permit, project, frequently, to fetch.

2.5 Complete the sentences using the words from the box. You can use some words more than once.

a cache memory ROM RAM virtual memory

  1. ­­___________ is a type of chip into which instructions are permanently embedded at the time of manufacture.

  1. ­___________ can be written to or read from and is often used for temporary storage of programs and data during processing.

  1. ­___________ is a special technique for expanding the capacity of main memory.

  2. A very high –speed memory called ­___________may have access times of less than 25 nanoseconds.

  3. Information stored in ­___________ is lost when the computer is turned off.

2.6 Give English equivalents of the following words and word – combinations.

Ряд комірок, керування пам’яттю, сторінкова організація, віртуальна пам’ять, двовимірний масив, завантажувати, енергонезалежний, розвантажувати, тривалість доступу, прямий/довільний доступ, спільна шина даних, енергозалежний, доступність інформації, виконувати спеціальні (стандартні) програми, створювати ілюзію, переміщати дані на диск.

2 .7 Translate into English in writing.

Так як розміри транзисторів в BiCMOS – структур у мікросхемах нових поколінь постійно зменшуються у розмірах, то і шар диоксиду кремнію повинен ставати все тоншим і тоншим. Проте товщина ізолюючого шару неухильно наближається до межі, за якою суттєво погіршується електричні якості цього традиційного ізолятора напівпровідникових інтегральних схем.

Найбільш вдалу пропозицію для вирішення цієї проблеми зробили спеціалісти фізичної дослідницької лабораторії (PSRR, Physical Sciences Research Lab Motorola) – використовувати матеріал, яких за своїми електричними властивостями схожий на діоксид кремнію, але має набагато менші фізичні розміри. Цей матеріал – титанат стронцію відноситься до класу мінералів – перовскітів ( perovskites).

Він має діелектричні показники, які перевищують діоксид кремнію більше ніж в 10 разів.

У лабораторії цей матеріал одержують штучно, нарощуючи атоми шар за шаром, що дає можливість одержати чисті і майже ідеальні кристали перовскітів.

Унікальні діелектричні характеристики дозволяють у 3-4 рази зменшити товщину елементарних транзисторів кристалу в порівнянні з використанням діоксиду кремнію.

Перспективи використання перовскітів дуже широкі. На їх основі можна проектувати напівпровідникові мікросхеми широкого вжитку з дуже низьким енергоспоживанням.

2.9 Answer the questions.

  1. What is memory?

  1. What are the main characteristics of ROM?

  1. Why is RAM said to be volatile?

  2. In what way are the cells of RAM organized?

  3. What are the functions of data, address and control buses?

  4. What do we call a memory which creates the illusion of a computer with more memory than it really has?

  5. What are the techniques for memory management? What is the difference between them?

  6. What type of memory holds the most –used data?

  7. How does a memory hierarchy work?

TEST YOURSELF

Match the following terms to the appropriate definition

:

A.

  1. Peripherals

  2. Processor

  3. Instruction set

  4. Clock

  5. Control unit

  6. Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)

  7. Register

  8. Word size

  9. Random access

  10. Bus

  11. Virtual memory

  12. Semiconductor

a. The functional unit that is responsible for supervising the operation of the

entire computer system.

b. A storage location inside the processor.

c. A timer in a processor that releases precisely timed signals that provide a

pulse for the processor’s work.

d. A functional unit that interprets and carries out instructions.

e. Devices, such as keyboards and display screens, that surround the processor

and memory.

f. A unique set of operations that comes with every processor.

g. The term used to describe the size of operand registers and buses.

h. A functional unit that provides the computer with logical and computational

capability.

i. A technique for creating the illusion that a computer has more memory than

it actually has.

j. A material whose electrical properties are less than a conductor and greater

than an insulator.

k. A method of organization in which access time is the same for any location.

l. A circuit that provides the pathway for the transfer of information between

two or more devices.

True/False:

31. Processors come with a unique set of operations called an instruction set.

32. In an instruction, operands specify the function to be performed.

33. A processor’s job is to retrieve instructions from memory and perform step-by- step operations.

34. The control unit is the functional unit that provides the computer with logical and computational capabilities.

35. A logic operation is one that makes a comparison and takes action based on the results.

36. The size of a computer’s registers affects the speed and performance of a processor.

37. Digital signal processors relieve the central processor of intensive numeric calculations.

38. Random access is accomplished by arranging memory in an array that is similar to a spreadsheet.

39. The miniaturization of electronic circuits is an important trend in the evolution of computers.

Multiple Choice:

40. Which of the following is not a part of the central processing unit?

a. Control unit.

b. Arithmetic/logic unit.

c. Memory.

d. Registers.

41. The arithmetic/logic unit is responsible for

a. Decoding instructions.

b. Adding.

c. Fetching data from memory.

d. Control signals.

42. ROM can be used to

a. Store the results of processing.

b. Store parts of the operating system.

c. Store programs and data.

d. Store any kind of data a program needs.

43. Which of the following is not a bus found in the central electronic complex?

a. Instruction.

b. Control.

c. Address.

d. Data.

44. Virtual memory

a. Is a larger and faster memory.

b. Consolidates pieces of a program.

c. Creates the illusion of more memory.

  1. None of the above

45. Which of the following is not a technique for increasing computer speed?

a. Shrinking circuits.

b. Fault-tolerant design.

c. Cooling circuits.

d. Parallel processing.

46. A major problem with parallel processing is

a. Combining hundreds to thousands of microprocessors.

b. Simultaneous processing by multiple processors.

c. Using today’s software.

d. All of the above.

Unit 7

MASS STORAGE

1.1 Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

A mass-storage device, a nonvolatile medium, organized collections, space requirements, change the locations of data, without regard, a card catalog, a physical location, prior records, ascending sequence, speed up access to, sequentially, organize alphabetically, store sequentially, within the file.

1.2 Learn key words and word-combinations.

ascending order- зростаючий порядок

ascending sequence - зростаючa послідовність

designate (v) – позначати; визначати

direct-access file - файл прямого доступу

directory (n) – каталог

field(n) - поле

index(n) - індекс

index-sequential (adj) - індексно-послідовний файл

key field - поле ключа

maintain(v) - обслуговувати

mass storage - запам'ятовуючий пристрій великого обсягу

multilevel index - багаторівневий індекс

record (n) – запис; (v) - записувати

retrieve data - відновлювати

sequential (adj) – послідовний

    1. Read and translate the text.

FILES AND MASS STORAGE

The term mass storage is derived from the term mass data, which means a quantity of data larger than the amount storable in the memory of a computer at any one time. The purpose of a mass-storage device is to provide a permanent or nonvolatile medium for information so that it can be stored, retrieved, and manipulated. In effect, mass storage provides a place to store data and programs before and after processing. Data or information is always grouped together in organized collections called files, which often consist of records and fields. The operating system takes care of the details of storing and maintaining the files in a mass-storage device. For example, the operating system is free to change the location of data as space requirements on the device may dictate.

Operating systems support three basic types of files: sequential, index-sequential, and direct-access.

Sequential files can only be accessed from beginning to end sequentially. For example, to read or write the last record in the file, you must first read or write all previous records. As an analogy, think of a series of songs recorded on an audiocassette. Each song is stored sequentially, one after the other, and can only be accessed in sequential order. As a general rule, sequential files are sorted into an order: most often in ascending order, that is, starting with the lowest value and proceeding to the highest value. A variation of the sequential method is called index-sequential. An index-sequential file is one in which an index is created to speed up access to records within the file. To access a record in an index-sequential file, you first consult an index. Large index-sequential files multilevel indexes Direct-access files allow you to read or write any record in the file without regard to its location. Direct-access files require that you designate one of the fields to be a key field that denotes the record’s position in the file. A disk can be used to store and retrieve data in a sequential, index-sequential, or direct manner, but magnetic tape can only be used to store and retrieve data in a sequential manner.

1.4 Give English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations:

Iндекс, засіб, розміщення, розташувати у зростаючому порядку, незалежно від його розміщення, багаторівневі індекси, файл послідовного доступу, розміщення фізичного запису, файл прямого доступу, визначити одне з полів як поле ключа, від найменшого значення до найвищого, розташувати у спадному порядку, поле, запис, енергонезалежний засіб, зберігати дані, в алфавітному порядку, послідовно, знаходити дані.

1.5 Complete the sentences with the words from the box.

ascending order mass storage sequential a key field index-sequential

1. Magnetic types, cassette types and the computer cards are the examples of _______ memory devices.

2. _______ provides a place to store data and programs before and after processing.

3. A field that denotes the record’s position in the file is called ___ .

4. ______ files have multilevel indexes.

5. Sequential files are most often sorted in ______ .

    1. Answer the questions.

1. What is the purpose of mass-storage device?

2. What is a file?

3. What does a file consist of?

4. What software takes care of the details of storing and manipulating data in a mass storage device?

5. What basic types of files are supported by operating systems?

6. In what order are sequential files usually organized?

7. What is the difference between index-sequential files and direct-access files?

8. Which of the files mentioned in the text is the most convenient to use? Why?

2.1 Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

Magnetically recorded, magnetic medium, a batch-processing mode, primary medium, mass-storage medium, flexible disks, compatible a metal shutter, a double-sided floppy disk, a nickname, a thin film of iron dioxide, single-sided floppy disks.

2.2 Learn key-words and word-combinations.

back-up file - резервний файл

batch-processing mode - режим обробки пакетами

compatible (adj) - сумісний

disk (n) - диск

disk drive - дисковод; накопичувач на дисках

disk file - файл на диску

disk storage -дискова пам'ять, накопичувач на магнітних дисках

magnetic tape - магнітна плівка

read/write slot - отвір для головки читання/запису

reflective coating –дзеркальне покриття

sector (n) - сектор

track (n) - доріжка

track density - щільність доріжок

track per inch - доріжок на дюйм

2.3 Read and translate the text.

MAGNETIC TAPE AND DISK DEVICES

Magnetic tape is coated with a film on which data can be magnetically re­corded. It is a widely used storage me­dium for large computer systems. In the early 1950s, tapes were made of flexible metal coated with a thin film of iron oxide, but plastic Mylar proved to be a more cost-effective medium. Although the disk has replaced magnetic tape as the primary mass-storage medium, mag­netic tape is still used for archiving data and for backing up disk files because it provides the lowest cost per bit of any magnetic medium. A backup file is a copy of a file made for possible later reconstruction in case the original file is lost or damaged.

The need for direct access to data stored in files was recognized as early as the 1950s. Until then, magnetic tape had proved to be quite adequate for systems using a batch-processing mode. However, applications that require a response in a short time period, such as airline reservation systems or inventory-part-tracking systems, demand mass-storage devices that provide fast and direct access to data.

The major difference between disk and tape is the disk’s faster access time. A disk device can retrieve data in milliseconds (1/1000 th of a second) compared with the minutes that might be required to access data in on a magnetic tape. However, in archiving data, tape is the primary medium used because access time is irrelevant: the low cost of storing data on tape is the most important criterion.

The general characteristics and operation of all types of disks are the same. The disk consists of a platter in which a magnetic or reflective coating is applied. The disk drive unit contains a read/write head on a movable arm along with a monitor and spindle assembly that rotates the disk. Data are stored on a disk in sectors, which are circles of different radii on the disk. One way of classifying magnetic disks is by whether the disk is hard or flexible (floppy).

In 1972 IBM introduced flexible disks as a medium for loading programs into mainframe computers. Because the disks were so flexible, they were nicknamed floppy disks. They are inexpensive, small, and easy to handle and can be send through the mail. Most of the computers have at least one floppy disk drive. Floppy disks are also called diskettes.

The disks must be compatible with the disk drive. Lower-capacity disk drives cannot read higher-capacity disks. The early floppy disks were single sided. The addition of another read/ write head created double-sided floppy disks and doubled the capacity of the disk. If you examine a 3.5-inch floppy disk, you will see that the read/write slot is covered by a metal shutter. When you insert the disk into a disk drive, the metal shutter slides back exposing the read/ write slot. The read/write head of the floppy disk drive can mechanically position itself over specific tracks. Today floppy disks are being replaced by optical disks.

2.4 Give English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Головка читання/запису, дисковод для гнучких дисків, завантажувати програму, бути сумісним, двобічний диск, магнітний диск, головна різниця, тривалість доступу, подвоїти ємність, магнітний носій, робити резервну копію, доріжка, сектор, щільність, пошкодити

2.5 Translate the following sentences into English.

1 . Сектори і доріжки утворюються під час форматування дискети.

2. Не забудьте заблокувати дискету, якщо ви хочете бути впевненими, що інформація не зміниться або не буде стерта випадково.

3. Магнітні поля можуть пошкодити інформацію, що зберігається на дискеті.

4. Гнучкі носії для магнітних накопичувачів випускають у вигляді дискет.

2.6 Form the words from the followings nouns and complete the sentences with some of these words.

record, magnet

1. ______ is the science of magnetic phenomena and properties.

2. When you insert a blank disk into a disk drive, it must be formatted, before

information can be _______ onto it.

3. _________ areas are created for each track and sector.

4. The ________ heads follow the tracks and ______ the coating along each track.

5. Information is ______ on a disk in a form of ________ spots called bits.

6. Floppy and hard disks are considered as ______ storage devices.

7. A disk drive works very much like a tape ______ that can both play and record.

3.1 Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

Magnetic oxide material, their primary advantages, access time, track density, an equivalent-sized floppy disk platter, a sealed container, the major source of contaminants, the high-speed spinning, a miniature gust of wind, a cushion of air, the nuisance of swapping floppy disks, removable disks, non-removable disks, in the same manner, the primary storage medium, multiple disk drivers, a self-contained unit, a physical record, a logic record, adjacent sectors

    1. Learn key-words and word-combinations.

access arm – важіль з магнітними головками

adjacent (adj) – суміжний

backup medium – резервний носій

coat (v) – покривати

enclose (v) – вкладати

fail (v) – виходити з ладу; (n) - несправність

logical record – логічний запис

physical record – фізичний запис

platter (n) – твердий (магнітний) диск

redundant (adj) – надлишковий

removable (adj) – зйомний

rigid (adj) – жорсткий

sealed (adj) – закритий; ізольований

spindle (v) – обертати(ся)

stack (v) – укладати; розташовувати

throughput – продуктивність

3.3 Read and translate the text.

HARD DISKS

Hard disks store data on rigid aluminium or ceramic platters coated with a magnetic oxide material. Their primary advantages over floppy disks are speed and capacity. With some hard disks, you can access information 100 times faster than with a floppy disk. In a hard disk, the disk and the read/ write head are enclosed in a sealed container. By sealing the entire unit, the major source of contaminants — atmospheric pollution — is eliminated. Also, the read/write head can be made much smaller and can ride much closer to the surface of the disk. The closer the read/ write head can be to the surface of the disk, the more data it can read from or write to the disk. The high-speed spinning of a hard disk (5000 to 7200 rpm) literally creates a miniature gust of wind at the surface of the disk. The read/write heads use that wind to float on a cushion of air. Because hard disks are rigid, groups of disks can be stacked on the same spindle. Such an assembly requires multiple read/write heads for each surface; these are attached to access arms that move the heads to the desired track. As with floppy disks, the number of tracks and the density vary from disk to disk.

To a personal computer user, the speed and capacity advantages of hard disks over floppy disks offer access to program and data files without the nuisance of swapping floppy disks. In addition, some programs are extremely slow and limited without access to a hard disk whereas others require the use of a hard disk. The disadvantages are that most hard disks must be backed up regularly and are more sensitive to shock than floppy disks.

Disk cartridges are removable disks that are sealed in a container similar to a videotape cartridge. These disk cartridges offer the same amount of storage as many of the non-removable disks and can be inserted and removed in the same manner as floppy disks. They can be used as the primary storage medium or as a backup medium. A major drawback of any fixed disk is the need to make backup copies of files. Backing up is simplified in systems that have either two cartridge drives or one hard drive and one cartridge drive.

Disk arrays combine and synchronize multiple disk drives into one self-contained unit. The advantages include faster data access and higher data throughput than an equivalent-sized single disk drive because switching from a read/write head on one disk to one on another disk can be accomplished electronically. Disk arrays can also store redundant data on several disk drives, and automatically recover data should one or more drives in the array fail.

Each disk track is divided into regions called sectors. In effect, a sector is equivalent to a physical record on a disk. The operating system’s job is to keep a directory to show which physical records are in use by which files. If a record contains 122 bytes and you are going to store your file sequentially on a floppy disk that has 512-byte sectors, each 512-byte physical record can contain four complete 122-byte logical records with 24 leftover bytes. If, for example, your file is to contain 100 records, then 25 sectors will be required to store your file.

Knowing these figures allows you to calculate roughly the size of your files; that information, combined with an estimate of how many records are going to be in the file, allows you to estimate the disk space requirements for your application.

Storage of a direct file is different. If you described a direct file whose record length totalled 122 bytes, some disks would store one logical record per sector. This makes it easier and faster for the disk drive to know where to access records in a direct manner. Logical records whose length exceeds the sector size are often stored in adjacent sectors. For example, if the logical record size is 600 bytes and the sector size is 5 12 bytes, two adjacent sectors will be required per record.

3.4 Give English equivalents.

Безпосереднім чином, розмір сектору, надлишкові дані, таким же чином, щільність доріжок, повітряна подушка, головні переваги, тривалість доступу, головка читання/запису, перевага у швидкодії, поверхня диску, логічний запис, жорсткий диск, сектор, набір дисків, дисковод, записувати на диск, ємність/обсяг, високошвидкісне обертання, доріжок на дюйм, носій середовище.

3. 5 Make up phrases or words by combining hard and disk with the words below. Give the meaning of each phrase or word in Ukrainian.

Copy sell drive drugs magnetic labour worker hard disk optical internal

сompact capacity currency ware time directory

3 . 6 Answer the questions.

1. What is the main function of a hard disk ?

2. Which unit is used to measure hard disk capacity ?

3. What are the advantages of hard disks over floppy disks ?

4. In what sectors is a file stored in a fragmented disk ?

5. In what sectors is a file stored in a defragmented disk ?

6. What are disk cartridges used for ?

4.1 Read and translate the following words and phrases.

Magnetic media, density limitations, high-density magnetic disks, incompatibility problems, compression technique, to achieve eras ability, write and erase times, an optical guidance system, chip technology, magnetic write head conventional magnetic disks, a direct access retrieval.

4.2 Learn the key-words and word-combinations:

CD ROM(compact disk read-only memory) - постійна пам’ять на компакт-диску

DVI(digital video interactive) - цифровий відеоформат

WORM(write-once, read mostly) - оптичний диск(разового запису і багаторазового читання)

magnetic medium – магнітний носій

density limitation – обмеження за щільністю

concentric (adj) – концентричний

access speed – швидкість доступу

complement (v) – доповнювати

compression technique – техніка (метод) ущільнення

real-time(adj) – реального часу

response time – час реакції/відповіді

seek time – тривалість установлення (головки)

reverse polarity – змінити полярність (на протилежну)

file server – файловий процесор

storage unit – запам’ятовувальний пристрій (блок)

indelible (v) – такий, що не стирається

large-scale integration – велика інтеграція

4.3 Read the text and note in the table the points for and against the three main types of optical disks. Then make notes about their use.

OPTICAL DISKS

All the preceding technologies for improving the capacity of disks are pushing magnetic media to their density limitations. However, the optical disk continues where the high-density magnetic disk stops. An optical disk is a disk on which data are encoded for retrieval by a laser. Optical disks for computer applications store their information on concentric tracks, like their magnetic cousins. One major disadvantage of optical disks is their slow access time (300 milliseconds average), versus the access speed of a magnetic hard disk (10 to 20 milliseconds average).

Currently, three versions of optical disk technology are competing for the mass-storage market: (1) read-only optical disks, (2) write-once optical disks, and (3) erasable optical disks.

Read-only optical disks , also called CD ROMs (compact disk read-only memories) cannot be written on; thus, they have the functional equivalency of read-only memory (ROM). The most popular version of read-only optical disks employs the same technology as the compact disk (CD), which has become popular for audio recording.

Although a CD ROM can hold massive amounts of text, the most compelling area of CD ROM applications is in the storage and retrieval of multimedia images and sound along with text. CD-ROM is the most economical way of sharing information.

Erasable optical disks use lasers to read and write information to and from the disk, but also use a magnetic material on the surface of the disk and a magnetic write head to achieve erasability. To write on such a disk, a laser beam heats a tiny spot on it; then a magnetic field is applied to reverse the magnetic polarity of the spot. Because of this property, they are called magneto-optical disks. They offer the same storage capabilities of the non-erasable optical disks along with the same reusability capabilities of conventional magnetic disks; however, write and erase times are usually slow. EODs have two important advantages over hard disks: they are not affected by magnetic fields, and they have a longer data life.

Write-once optical disks (also called write-once, read-mostly, or WORM) arc blank disks that are recorded on by the user. To write data, a powerful beam of laser light burns tiny spots or pits into the coating that covers the surface of these disks. Once burned in, the spots are not erasable. To retrieve the data, a less powerful laser is used to read the pattern of spots.

Like their CD ROM cousins, write-once optical disks can store video, images, and sound, as well as text. Being indelible, WORM disks can last 100 years.

Pros

Cons

Use/Purpose

WORM

CD-ROM

Erasable optical disks

4.4 Translate into English the following word-combinations so that you could form compound nouns:

Обмеження за щільністю, метод/техніка ущільнення, проблема несумісності, щільність доріжок, тривалість доступу, швидкість доступу, файлова система, промінь лазера, споживання енергії, дискова пам’ять, файловий процесор

TEST YOURSELF

Match the following terms to the appropriate definition:
A.
  1. ___ Mass storage

  2. ___ Sequential file

  3. ___ Index-sequential file

  4. ___ Direct-access file

  5. ___ Magnetic tape

  6. ___ Cartridge tape

  7. ___ Backup file

  8. ___ Disk

  9. ___ Floppy disk

  10. ___ Track density

a. A flexible disk.

b. A collection of records that can only be accessed by starting with the first record and proceeding through each record in the file.

c. A generic term for tapes and disks.

d. A file that contains an index to speed up access to records.

e. A flexible medium coated with a film on which data can be magnetically recorded.

f. A copy of a file that is made for possible later reconstruction in case the original is lost or damaged.

g. A tape designed for the purpose of making backup files.

h. A file that allows you to read or write any record in the file without regard to its location.

i. The number of tracks per inch on a disk.

j. A platter on which a magnetic or reflective coating is applied.

True/False:

  1. ___ The purpose of a mass-storage device is to provide a volatile storage medium for information.

  2. ___ Optical disks have not improved the capacity of mass-storage devices.

  3. ___ To read or write the last record in a sequential file, you must first read or write all previous records in the file.

  4. ___ A disadvantage of disk over tape is slower access time.

  5. ___ A disk device can retrieve data in billionths of a second.

  6. ___ Data are recorded on a spinning disk on a series of concentric tracks.

  7. ___ Each disk track is divided into regions called sectors.

  8. ___ By sealing the drive container, the read/write head can be made much smaller.

  9. ___ Read-only optical disks are replacing microfilm for storage and retrieval of information.

  10. ___ Erasable optical disks use a magnetic material on the surface of the disk.

  11. ___ CD ROMs have a standard format for storing data.

Unit 8

COMMUNICATIONS

  1. Read and translate the following phrases.

The field of communications, the transmission of information, hexagonal-shaped cells, the internal combustion engine, scientific and technical research, converge computer and communication technologies, continuous smoothly varied signals, discrete on/off signals, cellular telephones, the appropriate hardware and software, a world-wide network, computer-related devices, a single entity.

    1. Learn key words and word-combinations.

burst(n) - пакет

bus(n) - шина

bus network – магістральна мережа

circuit switching – перемикання каналів

collision(n) – колізія; конфлікт

compress(v) - ущільнювати

CSMA/CD(Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) – груповий доступ з контролем носія і виявленням конфліктів

data communications – передавання даних

data network – мережа даних

gateway(n) – шлюз(міжмереживний)

ISDN(Integrated Service Digital Network) - цифрова мережа інтегрованих послуг

LAN(local area network) – локальна мережа

MAN(metropolitan area network) – міжміська мережа

network(n) - мережа

packet(n) - пакет

packet switching – комутація пакетів

public voice network – мережа засобів зв‘язку

ring(n) – кільце

ring network – кільцева мережа

star topology – зіркова топологія

telecommunications – телезв’язок і дистанційне передавання даних

token(n) – естафета

token passing – естафетне передавання

upgrade (n) – нова версія

WAN(wide-area network) – міжрегіональна мережа зв‘язку

    1. Read and translate the text.

COMPUTER NETWORKS

There are three major categories of networks distinguished primarily by ge­ography: wide-area networks, metro­politan-area networks, and local-area networks.

Wide-area networks (WANs) provide communications across a country or the entire world. The telephone network is the most pervasive example. It is often viewed as a single entity, even though it is made up of a variety of separate com­panies. Using the telephone network, for example, it is possible for any two computers, equipped with the appropri­ate hardware and software, to communi­cate with one another. It is also possible for a traveller to withdraw cash from his or her own bank account from an automatic teller machine (ATM) in Tokyo or London. More and more banks, as well as other businesses, are linking together in a worldwide network to make automated transactions around the world as easy as they are around the corner.

Metropolitan-area networks (MANs) provide communications across and among major metropolitan areas. Pub­lic-safety agencies such as police and fire departments, companies, oper­ate and maintain their own private net­works. They use MANs to allow their mobile “out-of-office” workers to talk to, and to pass data back and forth to one another.

Local-area networks (LANs) provide communications within specific build­ings or facilities. This type of network could be used, for example, in a com­pany where computers are located in the sales, accounting, production, and pur­chasing departments. Each computer would handle the applications unique to its department. When communication among the computers is required, the computers pass data to one another over the network. For example, purchasing information must be passed to the ac­counting department for inclusion in the accounts payable system, or production-scheduling information must be passed to the purchasing department for use by the purchasing and inventory systems.

Local-area networks have many differ­ent topologies, or ways in which com­puters can be connected to the network. Throughout the history of networks, the star topology, in which a central controller connected terminals or personal computers, was the dominant form of connectivity. Today, the two most com­mon topologies are called ring and bus networks.

Ring Networks . Computers on a ring network are hooked together one after the other to form one continuous ring. To access each computer, a piece of software called a token is passed around the ring. A token is the electronic equivalent of an envelope. It contains a destination ad­dress and a fixed amount of information. The most popular token method is called token passing, in which one token at a time passes from computer to com­puter and carries messages around the network.

Bus networks . On a bus network computers are simply connected by a cable routed along a path in the vicinity of each device that must be connected to it. The most popular bus network is called Ethernet. Bus networks allow multiple messages to be sent simultaneously. This is often accomplished by “listening” to the net­work to see if any computer is transmit­ting. If the network is free, the computer can send its data. If two computers acci­dentally send data at the same time, a collision occurs, and after detecting the collision, the computers wait a random amount of time to transmit again. This access control method goes by the name of Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD).

There are two means of relaying infor­mation over networks: circuit switching and packet switching. In the case of mak­ing a telephone connection between Kyiv and Mykolaiv, the phone com­pany uses circuit switching to find a free circuit, or physical link, among the many possible alternatives between the two cities, and keeps that circuit open for the duration of the call. If the call consists of two computers talking to one another, they may only be exchanging short bursts of data and spending the majority of their time waiting for addi­tional data. Regardless of whether trans­mitting or waiting, the circuit is still con­nected, and the user is paying for the connect time, which results in a very inefficient use of bandwidth.

Packet switching breaks messages into smaller units called packets. Each packet contains the address of its desti­nation and the data to be sent. An anal­ogy can be found in the postal system, where letters (data) are placed in ad­dressed envelopes, sent by truck or plane through the mail (channel), and delivered to the proper receiving ad­dress. With packet switching, messages are broken into packets that are trans­mitted in short bursts over a communi­cation network to the specified address, where they are reassembled into the original message.

Whereas circuit switching makes a physical connection between two points, packet switching makes a virtual connection. By sending data in small packets, each with its own address, time and space on a network can be allocated more effectively. Many small packets can be routed over many different paths on the network instead of large messages routed over a single path. If errors occur, usually only a single packet of data is lost instead of the entire message. If different paths in the network go down, packets can easily be rerouted because no physi­cal connection has been established, only a virtual connection.

    1. Translate the following words and words-combinations into English so that you could form compound nouns.

Телефонна мережа, пристрої (засоби) зв‘язку, комп‘ютерні технології, перемикання каналів, комутація пакетів, мережа зв‘язку, зіркова топологія, магістральна мережа, метод керування доступом, базова станція, виявлення колізій(конфліктів), кільцева мережа, телефонний зв‘язок, телефонна промисловість, мережа даних;

    1. Give English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Забезпечувати зв‘язок, відповідне апаратне і програмне забезпечення, сфера зв’язку, стирати (згладжувати) відмінності, сходитися в мережу, сотовий телефон, усувати необхідність, обробляти(керувати) програму, взаємовиключний, передавати інформацію по мережі, фізичний зв‘язок, віртуальний зв‘язок, смуга частот, ефективно розміщувати, встановити фізичний зв‘язок, передавати через шлюз, обмінюватись пакетами даних.

    1. Fill in the blanks with the words from the text.

1. A data communications network is a group of devices ____________ interconnected by communications circuits so that users can share data, software programs and hardware resources.

2. _____________ is a network contained in a relatively small area.

3. Dissimilar networks can be interconnected by ____________, devices that help manage communications, control traffic on a large networks and translate protocols.

4. The Internet is the example of a _____________network.

5. _____________is an international standard for transmitting digital text, sound, voice and video data over telephone lines.

6. For long-distance or world-wide communications, computers and LANs are usually connected into a ____________ network to form a single integrated network.

    1. Translate into English.

  1. Для забезпечення зв‘язку між локальними мережами застосовуються засоби міжмережної взаємодії, які називаються мостами і маршрутизаторами.

  2. Мости використовують для зв‘язку мереж з однаковими комунікаційними системами, наприклад для зв‘язку двох мереж Ethernet.

  3. Маршрутизатори сполучають мережі з різними комунікаційними системами, оскільки вони мають засоби перетворення пакетів одного формату на інший.

  4. Існують мости-маршрутизатори, що об‘єднують функції двох систем.

  5. Для забезпечення зв‘язку з різними комп‘ютерними системами призначені шлюзи.

    1. Substitute the underlined word or phrase with the most suitable word from the box.

Connect join many at the same time protocols widespread send via

with common architecture configuration numerous transmit structure dissimilar different

  1. Bus networks allow multiple messages to be sent simultaneously.

  2. Dissimilar networks can be linked through gateways.

  3. The physical distribution of the devices and their interconnecting communication circuits is known as network “topology”.

  4. The software consists of the rules which determine the formats by which information can be exchanged between different networks.

  5. Internet and Arpanet transfer data and e-mail for university researchers and academicians, commercial groups and ordinary people.

  6. The telephone network is the most pervasive example.

    1. Answer the questions.

  1. What does the convergence of data communications and telecommunications mean for society?

  2. What is the difference between analog and digital networks?

  3. What are the main categories of networks? In what way are they distinguished?

  4. What are the two most common topologies of local-area networks?

  5. What are two basic means of relaying information over networks? Which of them is more effective? Why?

  6. What are the benefits of connecting computers and peripherals in a network?

  7. What are the advantages of packet switching over circuit switching?

    1. Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

Carry conversations, a flexible metallic shielding, a filament of glass, through open space, around the world, wide-area wireless communications, infrared technology, a popular wireless medium, cordless telephones, communication satellites, geosynchronous satellite-based communication, communication application.

  1. Learn the key words and word-combinations.

amplify(v) – підсилювати

bandwidth(n) – ширина смуги частот

coaxial cable – коаксіальний кабель

communication level – канал зв‘язку

compression(n) – ущільнення

convert(v) – перетворювати

convey(v) – передавати

dongle (n) –електронний захисний ключ-заглушка, механізм захисту від несанкціонованого доступу

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) – протокол обміну розподіленими даними через світлопровід

fiber-optic cable – волоконно-оптичний кабель

frequency(n) – частота

frequency-division multiplexing – частотне ущільнювання

geosynchronous(adj) – геосинхронний

hertz(n) – герц

iRDA (Infrared Data Association) Асоціація по засобам передачі даних в інфрачервоному діапазоні

microwave(n) – мікрохвиля

OBEX (OBject EXchange) технологія OBEX, технологія обмiну об’єктами всередині робочої групи

per unit of time – за одиницю часу

remote-control device – пристрій дистанційного контролю

repeater antenna – ретрансляторна антенна

satellite channel – супутниковий канал

shrink(v) – ущільнювати

spread-spectrum radio – радіозвя’зок з передачею сигналів у широкому діапазоні

time slot – інтервал часу

time-division multiplexing – ущільнювання у часі

time-sharing service – послуги в режимі розподілу часу

twisted-pair cable – вита пара

Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) стандарт Wi-Fi на бездротовий звязок

Read and translate the text.

COMMUNICATION CHANNELS

A communication channel is a trans­mission path for electrical or optical sig­nals. All communication channels use the medium of electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves, light waves, and microwaves, which differ only in their frequency. Frequency is a measure of the number of waves that are transmit­ted per second and is measured in hertz.) By converting one kind of wave, such as sound, into another, such as radio, waves can be made to carry conversations, data, and video around the world. There are two categories of communication channels: wired and wireless.

Several different types of wire are com­monly used to implement communica­tion channels. The simplest and least expensive medium is called twisted-pair wire. The wires that connect your tele­phone to the local telephone office are an example of twisted-pair wires. An­other common medium is the coaxial cable, which is wire surrounded by a flexible metallic shielding. A familiar ex­ample is found in cable TV connections. Coaxial cables have much higher capac­ity than do twisted-pair wires but are more expensive. The newest form of cable that is replacing coaxial cable is called a fibre-optic cable, which is made of optical fibres. An optical fibre is a filament of glass about the same size in diameter as a human hair. It uses light instead of electricity to transmit informa­tion. In theory, a fibre-optic cable can replace a wire in any application.

The second category of communication channel uses waves transmitted through open space. This category includes mi­crowaves, light waves, and radio waves.

An early form of wide-area wireless communication used microwaves to transmit and receive information. This type of system is capable of transmitting at higher capacities than are twisted-pair wires (twisted pair) or most coaxial cables. However, microwave systems are expensive be­cause they require relay stations with repeater antennas every 20 to 30 miles (32 to 48 kilometres). Relay stations are needed because microwave systems can only transmit data on a “line-of-sight” path. Each station is placed in line with the next, amplifies the signal received, and transmits it to the next relay station in the chain.

Infrared light waves are used as a communication channel, but only for short distances. Your television or VCR remote-control device is an example of an infrared communication channel. In­frared technology is also used in local-area networks to connect computers and devices in the same office. Infrared is also a popular wireless medium for por­table hand-held computers. For ex­ample, two users of infrared-equipped handheld computers could exchange electronic business cards by simply pointing the devices at one another, or connect to a local-area network in the same room to send and receive messages.

Radio waves are the most common wireless communication medium. They are transmitted by antennas, which can send or receive the waves. For local-area networks, one technology is called spread-spectrum radio, which is similar to the technology used in cordless tele­phones and garage door openers.

In the case of metropolitan-area net­works, one antenna is located in the mobile device, the other at the base sta­tion in the geographic cells. In wide-area networks, one antenna is located on the ground, the other in a satellite. Some communication satellites are placed in orbit 22,300 miles (35,680 kilometres) above the Earth’s surface. At this orbit, called geosynchronous, it takes exactly 24 hours to circle the earth, so the satel­lite appears to be stationary to the ground station. Television programs, telephone calls, and data can be trans­mitted from one continent to another using geosynchronous satellite-based. A major aspect of a communication channel is its capacity or the rate at which it can transfer information. The capacities of different communication channels can vary greatly and are not directly related to the physical medium. A coaxial cable, for example, can have as high a capacity as a satellite channel. Networks can convey information at a wide range of speeds, ranging from a few thousand bits per second for sending a brief text message, to tens of millions of bits per second for sending video images.

Bluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs). Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers, digital cameras, and video game consoles over a secure, globally unlicensed short-range radio frequency. Bluetooth is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power-class-dependent:1 metre, 10 metres, 100 metres) based on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. Bluetooth lets these devices communicate with each other when they are in range. The devices use a radio communications system, so they do not have to be in line of sight of each other, and can even be in other rooms, as long as the received transmission is powerful enough.

List of applications

More prevalent applications of Bluetooth include:

Bluetooth vs. Wi-Fi in Networking Bluetooth and Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) both have their places in today's offices, homes, and on the move: setting up networks, printing, or transferring presentations and files from PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant) to computers. Bluetooth is implemented in a variety of new products such as phones, printers, modems, and headsets. Bluetooth is acceptable for situations when two or more devices are in proximity to each other and don't require high bandwidth. Bluetooth is most commonly used with phones and hand-held computing devices, either using a Bluetooth headset or transferring files from phones/PDAs to computers.

Bluetooth also simplified the discovery and setup of services. Wi-Fi is more analogous to the traditional Ethernet network and requires configuration to set up shared resources, transmit files, set up audio links (for example, headsets and hands-free devices), whereas Bluetooth devices advertise all services they actually provide; this makes the utility of the service that much more accessible, without the need to worry about network addresses, permissions and all the other considerations that go with typical networks.

Wi-Fi Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth, but with higher power output resulting in a stronger connection. Wi-Fi is sometimes, but rarely, called "wireless Ethernet." Although this description is inaccurate, it provides an indication of Wi-Fi's relative strengths and weaknesses. Wi-Fi requires more setup, but is better suited for operating full-scale networks because it enables a faster connection, better range from the base station, and better security than Bluetooth. One method for comparing the efficiency of wireless transmission protocols such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi is spatial capacity, or bits per second per square meter.

Computer Requirements A personal computer must have a Bluetooth dongle in order to be able to communicate with other Bluetooth devices (such as mobile phones, mice and keyboards). While some portable computers and fewer desktop computers already contain an internal Bluetooth dongle, most computers require an external USB Bluetooth dongle. Unlike its predecessor, iRDA, in which each device requires a separate dongle, multiple Bluetooth devices can communicate with a computer over a single dongle.

The term bandwidth refers to the amount of data that is transmitted over the network per unit of time, typically expressed as bits per second.

Bandwidth is related to the needs of the communication application. For ex­ample, typing characters on a keyboard is limited by the typing speed of the user, so only a small bandwidth is needed for such an application. In an application such as linking a personal computer to a time-sharing computer service, data are typically transmitted at 1200 to 9600 bits per second.

Traffic over a communication channel is rarely smooth and continuous. Just as freeways are jammed during rush hour and empty late at night, or electrical con­sumption rises dramatically on a hot evening when air conditioners and appli­ances are turned on, communication channels also have peaks and valleys. Similarly, adding more lanes to already-crowded freeways does not necessarily solve the traffic problem, and adding more capacity to a communication chan­nel does not necessarily provide better communication capability. Other solutions involve more effective utilization of the bandwidth that is already there.

Compression (and decompression) is a technique for shrinking huge data files for storage and transmission. In our highway analogy, compression is the equivalent of carpooling. By packing more data into each packet, the capacity of an existing channel can be used more effectively.

A multiplexer is a device that allows multiple communication signals to share one communication channel. This low­ers communication costs by allowing more efficient use of a channel.

Frequency-division multiplexing in­volves dividing the transmission channel into different frequencies. Data from each user are then sent over a specific frequency. Radio is a familiar analogy. You can switch among radio stations and listen to each one without interference because each radio station is broadcast­ing at a different frequency. A typical telephone coaxial cable is capable of car­rying 10,000 simultaneous voice conver­sations simply by frequency-division multiplexing the signals that represent individual conversations.

Time-division multiplexing involves dividing the channel on the basis of fixed time intervals called time slots. For ex­ample, many digital channels are di­vided into 24 time slots less than a mil­lionth of a second long, which repeat in cycles of 24. Thus, each user’s data are separated in time from all other users’ data. By assigning a user time-slot num­ber 12, for example, that user’s data will always occupy time-slot number 12.

    1. Translate the following phrases so that you could form compound nouns.

Kанал зв‘язку, мікрохвильові системи, ретрансляторна антенна, засіб зв‘язку, супутник зв‘язку, наземна станція, супутниковий канал, схема ущільнення, канал передачі, інтервал часу, ретрансляторні станції, можливості зв‘язку.

    1. Give English equivalents of the following phrases.

Споживання електроенергії, численні сигнали зв‘язку, на основі фіксованих інтервалів часу, цифрові канали, ефективне використання смуги частот, для зберігання і передавання, без завад, пристрій дистанційного контролю, передавати і одержувати інформацію, посилати і одержувати повідомлення, підсилювати сигнал, використовувати світло замість електрики, бути безпосередньо з‘єднаними з фізичним середовищем.

    1. Find synonyms.

Differ, require, locate, restrict, method, vary, need, shrink, share, connect, link, transmit, situate, exact, involve, replace, convey, sharp, include, substitute, transfer, needs, compress, common, requirements, divide, widespread, send, limit, technique

    1. Fill in the blanks with the words from the text.

  1. Networks can be connected together by either _____________ lines or ___________ canals.

  2. Modern telecommunications use ___________ cables because data can be transmitted at a very high speed through extremely wide bandwidth of glass fibres.

  3. A technique for shrinking huge data files for storage and transmission is called __________.

  4. __________ cables require little physical space, they avoid electromagnetic interference and they are safe because they do not carry electricity.

  5. A device that allow multiple communication signals to share one communication channel is called a ______________.

  6. ______________ involves dividing the transmission channel into different frequencies.

  7. ______________ involves dividing the transmission channel into time slots.

  8. Frequency is measured in ____________.

    1. Explain the following terms in your own words.

Compression, bandwidth, communication channel, multiplexing

    1. Answer the questions.

  1. What physical medium is used by all communication channels?

  2. In what units is frequency measured?

  3. What types of wire are commonly used to implement communication channel?

  4. What are the advantages of fibre-optic cable in comparison with twisted-pair wire and coaxial cable?

  5. What are the main categories of communication channels?

  6. What types of waves does communication channel use?

  7. What type of waves is the most common wireless communication medium? Why?

  8. Are the capacities of different communication channels directly related to the physical medium?

  9. What is the compression necessary for?

  10. How does a multiplexer function?

3.1 Read and translate the following word-combinations.

A hardware component, vice versa, with the advent, in conjunction with, built-in telephone, digitize the image, to convert the signals, a telephone-jack connection, terminate the connection, reliable and convenient to use, facsimile transmission.

3.2 Learn key words and word-combinations.

acoustic modem – акустичний модем

acoustic coupler – гніздо для під’єднання телефону

analog telephone line – аналогова телефонна лінія

digital signal – цифровий сигнал

digitize(v) – перетворювати у цифрову форму

facsimile(n) – факсиміле; точна копія

provide feedback – забезпечувати зворотній зв‘язок

RF(radio-frequency) modem – радіочастотний модем

resolution(n) – роздільна здатність

telephone-jack connections – сполучення через телефонне гніздо

terminate connection – закінчувати зв‘язок

3.3 Read and translate the text.

Modems. The most common piece of data com­munication hardware in use today is the modem (short for modulator demodu­lator). It is popular because the most convenient communication channel is the analog telephone line. A modem at each end of the channel performs the function of converting digital signals into analog signals and vice versa.

Several types of modems are com­monly used. The earliest form is the acoustic modem. It consists of an acous­tic coupler designed to hold the handset of an ordinary telephone as well as mo­dem circuits to convert the signals and to interface with a terminal or personal computer. With the advent of the stan­dard telephone-jack connection, newer modems have taken on a slightly differ­ent form. They consist of the interface circuits along with a standard plug into which the telephone jack fits. These newer modems are typically more reli­able and convenient to use. Specialized modems designed for much higher transmission rates (up to 19,200 bits per second) are used in conjunction with communication channels that support the higher speeds. In wireless metro­politan-area networks, radio-frequency (RF) modems perform the same func­tions as their wired counterparts.

Facsimile or FAX is a method for elec­tronically copying and transmitting an image. FAX machines send and receive images over telephone lines. They scan documents, digitize the image, and transmit the information to another FAX machine, which reconstructs the image and prints it.

Using a FAX machine is similar to making a telephone call. To send a FAX, you first use the FAX’s built-in telephone to dial the number of another FAX ma­chine. After a connection is established, you insert your document into the FAX machine. When the transmission is suc­cessfully completed, the FAX machine provides feedback and terminates the connection. Receiving a FAX is automatic. The FAX machine must, of course, be turned on and connected to a phone line. An incoming call triggers the FAX to begin receiving the document. This type of point-to-point communication re­quires the sending and receiving FAX machines to be connected simulta­neously.

To make sure that FAX machines from different manufacturers can com­municate with one another, all vendors have adopted standard protocols from the Consultative Committee for Interna­tional Telephony and Telegraphy (CCITT). FAX machines can be combined with other computer and communica­tion technologies. FAX boards that con­tain a built-in modem and plug into one of the expansion slots inside of a personal computer enable facsimile trans­mission of word-processing documents without first making a paper copy. By using communication software, the document can be sent to a FAX machine or a comparably equipped computer.

For two devices to communicate, they must “speak the same language. “ What is communicated, and how and when it is communicated must conform to some mutually agreed-upon conventions. A protocol is a formal set of rules for specifying the format and relationship when exchanging data among commu­nicating devices.

Because communication between dissimilar devices is extremely complex, it is desirable to standardize protocols so that any device can use them. Two sys­tems, no matter how different, can com­municate if they use standard protocols. Also, a set of protocols instead of a single protocol is usually needed. These proto­cols are arranged in a hierarchy of layers. The top layers provide services in sup­port of the applications; the bottom layers are concerned with transmitting infor­mation between communicating devices.

By treating each layer independently, it becomes possible to change a protocol at one layer without affecting the other layers. For example, as higher-speed communication technology emerges, only the lower-level protocols need to change. The application can continue to function without having to “know” the details of the physical communication channel.

3.4 Answer the questions.

  1. What is the idea behind the modem?

  2. How is the modem connected to a telephone line?

  3. How does a fax machine operate?

  4. What is the protocol used for?

  1. Read and translate the text.

THE INTERNET

The Internet is a computer network made up of thousands of networks worldwide. No one knows exactly how many computers are connected to the Internet. It is certain, however, that these number in the millions. No one is in charge of the Internet. There are organizations which develop technical aspects of this network and set standards for creating applications on it, but no governing body is in control. The Internet backbone, through which Internet traffic flows, is owned by private companies. All computers on the Internet communicate with one another using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol suite, abbreviated to TCP/IP. Computers on the Internet use a client/server architecture. This means that the remote server machine provides files and services to the user's local client machine. Software can be installed on a client computer to take advantage of the latest access technology. An Internet user has access to a wide variety of services: electronic mail, file transfer, vast information resources, interest group membership, interactive collaboration, multimedia displays, real-time broadcasting, shopping opportunities, breaking news, and much more. The Internet consists primarily of a variety of access protocols. Many of these protocols feature programs that allow users to search for and retrieve material made available by the protocol.

COMPONENTS OF THE INTERNET The World Wide Web (abbreviated as the Web or WWW) is a system of Internet servers that supports hypertext to access several Internet protocols on a single interface. Almost every protocol type available on the Internet is accessible on the Web. This includes e-mail, FTP, Telnet, and Usenet News. In addition to these, the World Wide Web has its own protocol: HyperText Transfer Protocol, or HTTP. These protocols will be explained later in this document.

The World Wide Web provides a single interface for accessing all these protocols. This creates a convenient and user-friendly environment. It is no longer necessary to be conversant in these protocols within separate, command-level environments. The Web gathers together these protocols into a single system. Because of this feature, and because of the Web's ability to work with multimedia and advanced programming languages, the Web is the fastest-growing component of the Internet.

The operation of the Web relies primarily on hypertext as its means of information retrieval. HyperText is a document containing words that connect to other documents. These words are called links and are selectable by user.A single hypertext document can contain links to many documents. In the context of the Web, words or graphics may serve as links to other documents, images, video and sound. Links may or may not follow a logical path, as each connection is programmed by the creator of the source document. Overall, the Web contains a complex virtual web connections among a vast number of documents, graphics, videos, and sounds.

Producing hypertext for the Web is accomplished by creating documents with a language called HyperText Markup Language, or HTML. With HTML, tags are placed within the text to accomplish document formatting, visual features such as font size, italics and bold, and the creation of hypertext links. Graphics and multimedia may also be incorporated into an HTML document. HTML is an evolving language, with new tags being added as each upgrade of the language is developed and released. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), led by Web founder Tim Berners-Lee, coordinates the efforts of standardizing HTML. The W3C now calls the language XHTML and considers it to be an application of the XML language standard.

The World Wide Web consists of files, called pages or home pages, containing links to documents and resources throughout the Internet. The Web provides a vast array of experiences including multimedia presentations, real-time collaboration, interactive pages, radio and television broadcasts, and the automatic "push" of information to a client computer. Programming languages such as Java, JavaScript, Visual Basic, Cold Fusion and XML are extending the capabilities of the Web. A growing amount of information on the Web is served dynamically from content stored in databases. The Web is therefore not a fixed entity, but one that is in a constant state of development and flux.

E-MAIL Electronic mail, or e-mail, allows computer users locally and worldwide to exchange messages. Each user of e-mail has a mailbox address to which messages are sent. Messages sent through e-mail can arrive within a matter of seconds. A powerful aspect of e-mail is the option to send electronic files to a person's e-mail address. Non-ASCII files, known as binary files, may be attached to e-mail messages. These files are referred to as MIME attachments. MIME stands for Multimedia Internet Mail Extension, and was developed to help e-mail software handle a variety of file types. For example, a document created in Microsoft Word can be attached to an e-mail message and retrieved by the recipient with the appropriate e-mail program. Many e-mail programs, including Eudora, Netscape Messenger, and Microsoft Outlook, offer the ability to read files written in HTML, which is itself a MIME type.

TELNET Telnet is a program that allows you to log into computers on the Internet and use online databases, library catalogs, chat services, and more. There are no graphics in Telnet sessions, just text. To Telnet to a computer, you must know its address. This can consist of words (locis.loc.gov) or numbers (140.147.254.3). Some services require you to connect to a specific port on the remote computer. In this .case, type the port number after the Internet address. Example: telnet nri.reston.va.us 185. Telnet is available on the World Wide Web. Probably the most common Web-based resources available through Telnet have been library catalogs, though most catalogs have since migrated to the Web. A link to a Telnet resource may look like any other link, but it will launch a Telnet session to make the connection. A Telnet program must be installed on your local computer and configured to your Web browser in order to work. With the increasing popularity of the Web, Telnet has become less frequently used as a means of access to information on the Internet.

FTP FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. This is both a program and the method used to transfer files between computers. Anonymous FTP is an option that allows users to transfer files from thousands of host computers on the Internet to their personal computer account. FTP sites contain books, articles, software, games, images, sounds, multimedia, course work, data sets, and more. If your computer is directly connected to the Internet via an Ethernet cable, you can use one of several PC software programs, such as WS FTP for Windows, to conduct a file transfer. FTP transfers can be performed on the World Wide Web without the need for special software. In this case, the Web browser will suffice. Whenever you download software from a Web site to your local machine, you are using FTP. You can also retrieve FTP files via search engines such as FtpFind, located at http://www.ftpfind.com/. This option is easiest because you do not need to know FTP program commands.

E-MAIL DISCUSSION GROUPS One of the benefits of the Internet is the opportunity it offers to people worldwide to communicate via e-mail. The Internet is home to a large community of individuals who carry out active discussions organized around topic-oriented forums distributed by e-mail. These are administered by software programs. Probably the most common program is the listserv. A great variety of topics are covered by listserves, many of them academic in nature. When you subscribe to a listserv, messages from other subscribers are automatically sent to your electronic mailbox. You subscribe to a listserv by sending an e-mail message to a computer program called a listserver. Listservers are located on computer networks throughout the world. This program handles subscription information and distributes messages to and from subscribers. You must have a e-mail account to participate in a listserv discussion group. Visit Tile.net at http://tile.net/ to see an example of a site that offers a searchable collection of e-mail discussion groups. Majordomo and Listproc are two other programs that administer e-mail discussion groups. The commands for subscribing to and managing your list memberships are similar to those of listserv.

USENET NEWS Usenet News is a global electronic bulletin board system in which millions of computer users exchange information on a vast range of topics. The major difference between Usenet News and e-mail discussion groups is the fact that Usenet messages are stored on central computers, and users must connect to these computers to read or download the messages posted to these groups. This is distinct from e-mail distribution, in which messages arrive in the electronic mailboxes of each list member. Usenet itself is a set of machines that exchanges messages, or articles, from Usenet discussion forums, called newsgroups. Usenet administrators control their own sites, and decide which (if any) newsgroups to sponsor and which remote newsgroups to allow into the system. There are thousands of Usenet newsgroups in existence. While many are academic in nature, numerous newsgroups are organized around recreational topics. Much serious computer-related work takes place in Usenet discussions. A small number of e-mail discussion groups also exist as Usenet newsgroups. The Usenet newsfeed can be read by a variety of newsreader software programs. For example, the Netscape suite comes with a newsreader program called Messenger. Newsreaders are also available as standalone products.

CHAT & INSTANT MESSENGING

Chat programs allow users on the Internet to communicate with each other by typing in real time. They are sometimes included as a feature of a Web site, where users can log into the "chat room" to exchange comments and information about the topics addressed on the site. Chat may take other, more wide-ranging forms. For example, America Online is well known for sponsoring a number of topical chat rooms. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a service through which participants can communicate to each other on hundreds of channels. These channels are usually based on specific topics. While many topics are frivolous, substantive conversations are also taking place. To access IRC, you must use an IRC software program. A variation of chat is the phenomenon of instant messenging. With instant messenging, a user on the Web can contact another user currently logged in and type a conversation. Most famous is America Online's Instant Messenger, ICQ, MSN and Yahoo also offer chat programs.

4.4 Explain the following terms in your own words.

e-mail, electronic mailbox, a video conference, an electronic bulletin board, an electronic, conference

4.5 Which data communication services would you use for each of these requirements?

  1. To send a personal message to a friend who is at a different workstation.

  2. To send a copy of a paper document, for instance, a scientific article.

  3. To access massive databases, containing all kinds of information.

  4. To receive shareware and public domain programs from a user ( a group).

  5. To find out weather forecasts and sports information from television.

  1. fax

  2. electronic mail

  3. teletext

  4. local bulletin board

  5. commercial online service

4.6 Fill in the blanks with the words from the text.

  1. The Internet is the largest global _____________ network connecting millions of users all over the world.

  2. Users can ___________ commercial and non-commercial services of the USA, Canada, Australia and many European countries.

  3. _____________ is one of the earliest and most popular services provided by the Internet.

  4. _____________ is real-time collaboration between people using video, voice and data.

  5. Most users access the Internet through ____________ such as CompuServe and Prodigy.

4.7 Put the verb into the correct form.

  1. The Internet which was used mainly by researchers, _____________ more popular in business spheres.(become)

  2. Prodigy‘s services ________ particularly at shoppers and the needs of children.(aim)

  3. Telecommunications __________ for hundreds of different applications.(use)

  4. Electronic mail _________ some special hardware.(require)

  5. The Internet ________ very rapid growth in traffic.(experience)

4.8 Proverbs for the Internet. Try to guess what proverbs they originated from.

  1. Home is where you hang your @.

  2. You cannot teach a new mouth old clicks.

  3. Too many clicks spoiled the browse.

  4. Do not buy more than you can view.

  5. The user and his leisure time are soon parted.

  6. There is no place like http://www.home.com

  7. Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day: teach him how to use the Net and he won‘t bother you for weeks.

4.9 Answer the questions.

  1. What are the advantages of electronic mail over the telephone?

  2. What problems can be solved with help of computer-based collaborative work?

  3. What are the advantages of a video conference over an electronic conference?

  4. What is the role of the Internet in modern life?

  5. What is the architecture of the Internet?

  6. What hardware and software are necessary to access the Internet?

  7. What is the transceiver?

  8. What are the most popular transceivers?

  9. What is the average speed of transmitting information via the Ethernet?

4.10 Make a report on

  1. The Internet as the global information space.

  2. The Intranet.

  3. The Ethernet.

  4. The architecture of the Internet and Ethernet.

  5. Services provided by the Internet.

  6. Protocols.

TEST YOURSELF

Match the following key terms to the appropriate definition:
A.

1. Telecommunications

2. Data communications

3. Networks

4. Analog

5. Digital

6. Wide-area network

7. Metropolitan area ikm work

8. Local-area net work

a. A type of network in which information is represented by continuous smoothly varying signals.

b. The transmission of information over long distances by means of telephone, Teletype, radio.

c. A network that provides communications across and among major areas such as New York, Chicago, or Los Angeles

d. A network that provides communications within specific buildings

e. The transfer of data or information between computer related devices.

f. A network in which information is represented by discrete on / off signals.

g. A net work that provides communications across a country or the entire world.

h. A group of computers and others devices connected by communication facilities.

B.

9. ring network
10. bus network
11. gateway

12. circuit switching

13. packet switching

14. communication channel

15. Bandwidth

16. multiplexer

a. A device used to connect dissimilar networks.

b. A communication channel routed along a path in the vicinity.

c. A transmission path for electrical or optical signals.

d. A device that allows multiple communication signals to share
communication channel.

e. A closed-loop communication channel

f. The amount of data that is transmitted over the network per unit of
the time.

g. A method of creating a physical link between two communication
devices.

h. A method for breaking messages into smaller units that can be transmitted separately over communication networks.

True/False:

  1. Analog signals for communication were devel­oped before computers were invented.

  2. Users of metropolitan-area networks include police and fire departments.

  3. Metropolitan-area networks are designed to provide communications within specific build­ings.

  4. The three major categories of networks are mutually exclusive.

  5. By sending data in small packets, each with its own address, time and space on a network can be allocated more effectively.

  6. Twisted-pair wires are the simplest and least expensive media for communication channels.

  7. In theory, a fibre-optic cable can replace a wire in any application.

  8. The most convenient communication channel in use today is the telephone line.

  9. Infrared light waves are useful for long-distance communications.

  10. Modems can handle simultaneous voice and data transmission.

  11. Bandwidth is related to the needs of the commu­nication application.

  12. Time-based information, such as video and audio, requires high bandwidths to be useful.

  13. A disadvantage of facsimile is that the sender and receiver must be connected simultaneously.

  14. Video conferencing involves delayed collabora­tion between people.

Multiple Choice:

  1. A wire surrounded by a flexible metallic shield is called a

a. Twisted-pair wire.

b. Fiber-optic cable.

c. Coaxial cable.

d. Telephone wire.

  1. Multiplexing allows several users to share a

a. Central computer.

b. Local-area network.

c. Communication channel.

d. Satellite.

44. For two devices to communicate, they must

a. Both have modems.

b. Use wireless networks.

c. Speak the same language.

d. All of the above.

45. The most common wireless communication media are

a. Light waves.

b. Radio waves.

c. Microwaves.

d. None of the above.

d. None of the above.

47. More effective use of existing bandwidth can be accomplished by

a. Protocols.

b. Broadband channels.

c. Circuit switching.

d. Packet switching.

48. Facsimile technology for personal computers

a. Enables computer-to-facsimile transmission.

b. Enables facsimile transmission without first making a paper copy.

c. Enables computer-to-computer facsimile.

d. All of the above.

49. An electronic conference

a. Requires the participants to meet simultaneously.

b. Eliminates the need for simulta­neous participation.

c. Is associated with one-to-one communications.

  1. None of the above.

50.Video conferencing is an alterna­tive to

a. Electronic mail.

b. Face-to-face meetings.

c. Electronic conferencing.

d. None of the above.

d. None of the above.

Unit 9

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

  1. Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

Requirements, a function, reliable, an error, modify, satisfy, a developer, error-free, reusable, accomplish, top-down structured design, creative decisions, implementation, life cycle, end-user level, side by side, time consuming, inevitable bugs, rough sketches, refine, clay models, unusable, evaluate, the initial design, a structure chart, implementation, the eventual retirement of a system, a completed application, a specific programming language, a special –purpose word processor, evaluate the entire program, logical errors, divide a program into modules, pseudo code listing.

    1. Learn key-words and word-combinations.

bootstrap loader – початковий завантажувач

coding – кодування

compiler(n) – компілятор; транслятор

definition(n) - визначення

flowchart(n) – блок-схема

implementation(n) - впровадження

interpreter (n) –інтерпретатор(програм)

linker(n) –редактор зв’язків

loader(n) – завантажувач

maintenance(n) –супровід; обслуговування

mockup(n)- модель

object program –об’єктна програма ; вихідна програма

object code – об’єктна програма

program generator – генератор програм

program editor – редактор текстів програм

replacement(n) –заміна

requirements list –список вимог

source program – початкова програма

source code - початкова програма

scale(n)- масштаб

top-down structured design- низхідне структурне програмування

1.3Read and translate the text.

THE PHASES OF SOFWARE DEVELOPMENT

Software development is the process of analyzing the requirements of a system , and then designing, writing, and testing the software. The goals of software development are to

To accomplish those goals, software developers approach problems using a problem-solving process that contains several useful principles. The first prin­ciple is top-down structured design, which starts with the whole problem and develops more and more detail as the solution evolves. The second principle is a systems life-cycle approach. This proceeds from definition to design, and then from development to implementa­tion, and finally to the eventual retire­ment and replacement of a system. The third principle is to make many of the important and creative decisions occur early in the definition and design stages of the life cycle. The fourth principle consists of a systematic series of actions directed toward a goal.

The process of creating software or programs consists of the following phases:

.Two things must happen in the program design phase: (1) the problem must be understood and defined, and (2) a solu­tion must be engineered. Some of the understanding can be derived from a requirements list. In addition to the requirements, the problem should be studied in an actual situation to understand how people use an application, the data the application processes, the hardware used to imple­ment the application, and any other fac­tors that might affect the performance of the application. These factors should then be compared to the requirements. This process generally produces a com­pleted application that is more naturally organized than if the requirements alone drove the initial design.

The second major step in the software-development process is the engineering of a solution. The top-down strategy— starting with the whole and working to­ward the parts—is a fundamental prin­ciple in all program design and allows the developer to analyze a complex problem by breaking it down into simple functions. After analyzing the requirements, the developer begins the task of actually writing the solution on paper. A devel­oper might produce a structure chart, in which each function (or module) appears as a block and its interaction with every other function is shown. Such tools as flowcharts, prototyping and pseudo code help the developer design the program.

Implementing a solution requires an­swers to several planning and design questions. Does software that will solve the problem already exist? How have others solved similar problems? Are the requirements so unique that new soft­ware must be written from scratch? The answers to these questions involve de­fining (1) the scale of the application ; (2) the scope of the application; and (3) the type of data involved in the application.

After the problem has been defined and the solution planned, there is a wide range of development tools from which to choose: programming languages ,program generators and interface builders.

If the solution involves the use of a pro­gramming language, a program must be coded. Coding a program means writ­ing that program in a specific program­ming language. This is done with a program editor, which is a special-purpose word processor that allows the programmer to enter, edit, change, add, and delete programming-language state­ments The program coded by the program­mer cannot be directly executed by a computer unless it is coded in machine language. The program written in a pro­gramming language is called a source program, or simplysource code. It must be translated into machine language, which is called an object program orobject code. The translator program is called a compiler or interpreter . Both compilers and inter­preters perform the functions of (1) checking program instructions for cor­rect spelling and grammar and then (2) translating correct program instructions into a machine language, but they work slightly differently.

An interpreter interactively trans­lates each programming statement into an immediately usable sequence of ma­chine-language instructions. For ex­ample, when you write a program on most personal computers, you type in the program statements and then run the program. An interpreter translates the first statement in the pro­gram and executes it, then translates the second statement and executes it, and so on, until the program is finished.

The goal of testing is to find errors. A major form of testing involves running the program using dif­ferent sample sets of data and simulating the conditions under which the finished program will be run. The testing phase involves working out all the logical er­rors in the program—errors that a com­piler cannot detect. It is best to test all the possible conditions that can occur in a program, both expected and unexpected. When a program is divided into mod­ules, each module can be exhaustively tested, then combined with other mod­ules, and tested together until the final program can be verified. A completed program should not only do what it is supposed to do (i.e., perform its in­tended function), but also it should not do anything that it is not supposed to do.

Documentation falls into two categories: program documentation and user documentation. Program documentation is the written information necessary to support the software. All software has a life cycle in which it must be maintained. Some of the maintenance involves fixing any errors that might have slipped through the testing phases; other main­tenance involves additions or enhance­ments that might have to be incorpo­rated into the program. Program documentation also includes a pseudo ­code listing or a flowchart and formal specification of the inputs, control data, and outputs. For the software user, the documen­tation that matters is the set of user or instruction manuals. These documents should (1) explain how to use the soft­ware and (2) cover everything that can possibly happen while the software is being used.

The last phase in the process is called maintenance. Software needs to be re­vised continuously to remove bugs or errors, improve performance, accom­modate new hardware or software, or add new requirements. Maintenance is usually an expensive process because as the software is modified it usually be­comes larger, more complex, and more error-prone. Also, the documentation that accompanies the software must be modified.

    1. Give English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Підхід до життєвого циклу системи, процес вирішення проблеми, від розробки до впровадження, технологія програмування, створення програмного забезпечення, структурна схема, основні принципи, блок-схема, впровадження прикладної програми, задовольняти вимоги , заміна системи, макетування, проектування програми, ефективність прикладної програми, початковий завантажувач, підтримувати життєвий цикл системи, процес створення програми, підтримувати програмне забезпечення, використовувати програмне забезпечення, знаходити помилки, моделювати умови,

    1. Give the definition of the following terms in English.

A linker, a loader, a program generator, an interface builder, a source program, an object program.

1.6 Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Дотримання підходу до життєвого циклу системи вважається стандартною процедурою при її створенні.

2.Блок-схема складається із стандартних символів, які означають тип операцій.

3. Псевдокод є альтернативою блок-схеми і з ним зазвичай легше працювати.

4. Редактор зв’язків – це програма, яка з’єднує модулі в єдину програму.

5. Налагодження програми відноситься до процесу виявлення помилок у програмі її розробником.

1.7 Fill in the blanks with the words from the box. You can use the word more than once.

Debugged pseudo code CASE a linker top-down design software development error message

1. A program will not work properly until it is … .

2. … is a written description of a program using English statements.

3. Software developers often use … to apply the computer to the tasks of defining, designing, and developing the software.

4. … is a program that links modules together and produces an entire program.

5. One of the goals of … is to produce software that is reusable.

6. An advantage of … is the ability to write statements that are flexible enough to be coded in different programming languages.

7. Using the … programmer starts with the whole and works toward the parts.

8. Sometimes the … points only to a general area in which the error occurred.

1.8 Answer the questions.

1. What are the goals of software development?

2. What phases does the process of working out software consist of?

3. What principles do software developers apply while creating a program?

4. What criteria are necessary in the program design phase?

5. Why is a requirements list necessary to a software developer?

6. How do you build an application with an interface builder?

7. Why are program generators called nonprocedural languages?

8. What is the function of a bootstrap loader?

9. What do we call a program written in a programming language?

10. What functions do compilers and interpreters perform?

1.9 Write a brief report comparing two program generators.

2.1 Read and translate the following words and phrases.

A structured approach, software-development projects, intractable, interrelated concepts, in general terms, a template, the lower-level functions, a set of interrelated modules, the design logic, verify, from beginning to end, modularization, basic premises, encompass, loop, a software entity, gain favour, a step-by-step set, exponentially, a directory, incorporate, a binary search, simplify, complexity, in terms of, accommodating, at a similar rate, back and forth, in addition.

  1. Learn key words and word-combinations.

associate(v) – з’єднувати; сполучати

autonomy(n) - автономність

binary search – двійковий пошук

bottom-up design – висхідне проектування

class(n) – клас ;категорія

debug(v) - налаштовувати

facilitate(v) - полегшувати

hierarchy chart - структурна схема

interconnection(n) - взаємозв’язок

library(n) - бібліотека

looping - організація циклу

module (n) - модуль

object-oriented programming – обєктно-орієнтоване програмування

package(n) – модуль; пакет

procedure(n) – процедура ;процес

selection(n) – вибір; селекція

sequence(n) - послідовність

similarity (n) - подібність

simplify(v) - спрощувати

structure chart – структурна схема

structured programming – структурне програмування

tool(n) - засіб

top-down design – низхідне проектування

  1. Read and translate the text.

STRUCTURED AND OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING

Structured programming is the process of dividing the program into smaller units or modules, which allows clearer expression of the problem and simpler organization. A structured programming language facilitates the process. A structured approach can help to formalize design activities and decisions so that teams of developers can work together on software-development projects. Three interrelated concepts form the basis of a structured approach to programming: top-down design, modularization,, and the standardized control structures.

Top-down design is a popular technique for structured design. First, it consists of specifying the solution to a problem in general terms and, then, breaking the solution down into finer and finer de­tails. Top-down design is similar to creat­ing an outline and later filling it in. It is often contrasted to bottom-up design. Top-down design refers to starting with the whole and working toward the parts, whereas bottom-up design refers to starting with the parts and trying to build a whole, and it is generally used when coding a program.

A tool that is often used in top-down design is a structure chart, sometimes called a hierarchy chart, which is a diagram that shows the components of a program and the inter­connection between components. The developer analyzes the problem by start­ing at the top or the most general func­tion and carefully works down to the lower-level functions. The developer need not look at any details of the pro­cesses involved. The task is to determine what needs to be done, isolate the pro­cessing steps, and break the program into a set of interrelated modules. The resulting diagram of modules becomes a useful visual method for checking the design logic.

The concept of modularization helps a software developer to divide a complex program into smaller subprograms. A module is a set of instructions that can be tested and verified independent of its use in a larger program. In other words, it can be coded, debugged, and tested without having to write an entire pro­gram. It is much easier to write a small module, test and verify it, and then com­bine it with other modules to form a program than it is to write and test an entire large program from beginning to end.

How do independent modules work as part of a larger program? Just as pro­grams accept input, process it, and pro­duce output, modules perform similar functions. Modules communicate to one another by passing data back and forth. Inputs specify the information needed for the module to do its task. The output is the result of the processing done by the module. In this way, a module be­comes a well-defined processing task that can be developed and then tested separately. Modern programming languages sup­port modularization directly through features called units, packages, func­tions, procedures, and even modules. Large-software development projects are so complex that modularization is a necessity.

Another basic premises of structured programming is that all the programs can be written using three basic control structures, which are statements in the program that controls the order in which the instructions are executed. The basic control structures are sequence, selection, and looping – the process of repeating the execution of a set of instructions. A fourth control structure, called the case-control structure, is often included in structured discussions. These control structures are designed to help maintain the modular program structure.

An algorithm is a step-by-step set of instructions for solving a specific prob­lem. In the context of developing software, algorithms are sets of instructions for computational prob­lems. There are problems for which no known algorithms exist, such as getting a computer to play a perfect game of chess. There are also problems for which an algorithm exists, but the computer time needed to solve it grows exponentially with the size of the problem. Such problems are called intractable.

There are also problems for which both an algorithm and a reasonable time-solution exist. For example, using a technique called a binary search, deter­mine how many comparisons it would take in the worst case to find a name in a one-million-name telephone directory. (In the worst case of a sequential search, one million comparisons would be re­quired.) The answer is 20. Also, as the telephone directory grows exponentially larger, the number of comparisons required, does not increase at a similar rate. A one-billion-name telephone di­rectory would, in the worst case, require only 30 comparisons. Many algorithms exist for sorting, searching, statistical calculating, and other mathematical procedures. If you need to sort some data quickly, for ex­ample, you can look up a published algorithm for fast sorting, copy it, and incorporate it into your program. These public algorithms are an excellent source problem-solving information, and if fit the problem, they can easily be used by the developer.

In addition to structured programming, another approach for dealing with the complexity of software is called object-oriented programming, which is gaining favour among software developers.

Object-oriented programming is a technique in which the developer breaks the problem into modules called objects that contain both data and in­structions and can perform specific tasks. The developer then organizes the pro­gram around the collection of objects. It is characterized by the following con­cepts.

Classification . The ability to repre­sent an arbitrary number of data items that all have the same behaviour and the same characteristics with a single software entity, called a class. The class serves as a template from which specific objects are created. A collec­tion of classes associated with a particular environment is called a library.

Classes describe what objects can ex­ist, the characteristics of those objects, and what kinds of procedures can be performed with the objects. Classifica­tion and similarity allow new system ele­ments to be defined by leveraging the specifications of existing classes. For ex­ample, if we wanted to show our invoice on a display screen as well as print it, we could add a new “display invoice” object that inherits the general characteristics of invoices from an invoice class. A soft­ware developer would create the display invoice object by programming the dif­ferences between the print-invoice ob­ject and the display-invoice object. In the process, previously defined characteris­tics are used when appropriate.

Objects and their classes provide an­other technique for understanding and defining a problem phase in the process of designing a program. Perhaps what is more important, the object model is very accommodating to engineering a solu­tion. In most cases, the object model can be used directly as a blueprint when creating an object-oriented program.

    1. Give English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations .

Взаємозв’язок між компонентами, функції нижчого рівня, візуальний метод, таким чином, підтримувати модулярізацію, виконувати подібні функції, застосовувати специфікацію, успадкувати загальні характеристики особливе операційне середовище, засіб ,довільна кількість даних, шаблон, поведінка, специфічний об’єкт, інший підхід, покроковий, двійковий пошук, подібність.

    1. Translate the following word-combinations into English so that you could form compound nouns.

Розробка програмного забезпечення, вимоги користувача, список вимог, засоби розробки, довідник даних, словник бази даних, генератор звітів, рівень користувача, повідомлення про помилку, документація програми, інструкція для користувача, розробники програмного забезпечення, генератор програм.

    1. Translate the following sentences into English.

1.Алгоритм вказує, які операції оброблення даних і в якій послідовності необхідно виконати ,щоб одержати розв’язок задачі.

2. Застосовуючи обєктно-орієнтоване програмування, розробник розбиває проблему на модулі, які називаються об’єктами.

3.Обєкт є автономним модулем, який містить в собі дані і команди.

4.Прихильники обєктно-орієнтованого програмування вважають, що воно прискорює процес створення програми та знижує витрати на її розробку.

5. Однією з головних переваг модулярізації є те, що модулі можна перевіряти по ходу розробки проекту .

    1. Fill in the blanks with the words from the box.

hierarchy chart object-oriented programming an object model an object a library

1. … is a diagram that shows the components of the program and the interconnections between them.

2. … is gaining favour among software developers.

3. A collection of classes associated with a particular environment is called … .

  1. … is very accommodating to engineering a solution.

  2. … is a self –contained module that contains data and instructions.

2.7. Explain the following terms in your own words.

Binary search bottom-up design debug library hierarchy chart structured programming

2.8 Answer the questions.

1. What is the difference between structured and object-oriented programming?

2. What tool is often used in top-down design?

3. Explain the concept of modularization.

4. What is one of the major advantages of modularization?

5. Explain the concept of an algorithm. Give an example of intractable problems.

6 .In what cases do you use a technique called a binary search?

7. What are the three basic control structures of structured programming and what is their function?

8. What do classes describe?

9. What is one of the major advantages of modularization?

TEST YOURSELF

Match the following key terms to their appropriate definitions:


A.

1 .____Software development

2._____ Top-down design

3._____ Systems life-cycle approach

4 ._____Prototyping

5 ._____Flowchart

6._____ Pseudocode

7._____Source program

8._____ Software engineering

9 ._____Programmer

10 .____Computer-aided software engineering

11. ____Coding

  1. A program written in a programming language such as C++ or Delphi.

  2. b The process of analyzing the requirements of a system, then designing, writing, and testing the software.

  3. Proceeding from definition to design, development to implementation, and the eventual retirement and replacement of a system.

  4. A trained person who create computer programs.

  5. The application of scientific and mathematical principles to the design and development of producing software.

  6. A written description of a program using English statements.

  7. Starting with the whole program and developing more and more details as the solution evolves.

  8. Writing a program in a specific programming language.

  9. A set of tools to automate the tasks involved in designing and developing large-scale or complex software projects.

  10. A graphic way of representing the thinking that goes into solving a problem.

  11. The process of building working models of the application, testing them, and modifying them in response to new ideas.

B.

12. ____Object program

13. ____Interpreter

14. ____Compiler

15. ____ Debugging

16.____ Linker

17 _____Loader

18_____ Program generator

19 .____Report generator

20 .____Nonprocedural language

21_____ Interface builder

  1. A program that brings programs stored in a program library into memory for execution.

  2. A program that combines several modules into one executable program.

  3. A program that has been translated into machine language.

  4. A tool for assembling a user interface, also called front end, from a library of predefined graphic objects.

  5. A special type of program generator that can generate only one type of program: a report.

  6. A program that interactively translates each programming statement into an immediately usable machine-language instruction.

  7. A program that translates correct high-level programming statements into a machine-language instructions all at one time.

  8. Defining problems in terms of the results desired instead of procedural programming terms.

  9. A way to generate a program based on writing specifications about the problem to be solved.

  10. The process of uncovering errors in a program.

C .

22 .____Program testing

23 .____Program documentation

24 .____Structured programming

25.____ Bottom-up design

26.____ Structure chart

27.____ Module

28 ____Algorithm

29.____ Control structure

30.____ Object-oriented programming

31.____ Object

Unit 10

INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND DATABASES

  1. Read and translate the following words and word-combinations.

highly de­pendent, com­puter-based information systems, take advantage, applica­tion software, the strategic value of information, provide up-to-date access, update the data, major trends, enhance, span a broad range, answer specific ques­tions, decision making, a major concern, pro­vide the means, a query optimizer, specific applications, an ad hoc fashion, large-scale transac­tion-processing systems, enti­ties called objects,

1.2 Learn key-words and word-combinations.

Attribute (n( -ознака; атрибут

condense (v) – ущільнювати

data independence – незалежність від даних

database management system (DBMS) –система керування базою даних(СКБД)

data model – модель даних

directed graph – орієнтований граф

encapsulated (adj) – герметизований

filter (v) - фільтрувати

handle complex data – опрацьовувати складні дані

hierarchical database – ієрархічна база даних

infor­mation technology – інформаційна технологія

linked list – ланцюговий список; список з вказівниками

management information sys­tem (MIS) - інформаційно-керівна система

manipulation (n) – опрацювання; маніпулювання

net­work model – мережева модель

one-to-many rela­tionship—відношення “один- до- багатьох”

optimizer(n) – оптимізатор

occurrence record – екземпляр запису (у базі даних)

parent (n) – твірний елемент (вузол)

pointer(n) - - вказівник

provide up-to-date access – забезпечити сучасний доступ

SQL (Structured Query Language) - мова структурованих запитів

relation(n) – відношення; стосунок; залежність

query language – мова запитів

relational model – реляційна модель

root record – кореневий запис

tree structure - деревоподібна структура

tuple(n) –запис

1.3 Read and translate the text.

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Computers and information systems play critical roles in the operation of most organizations. All organizations are highly de­pendent on information for their day-to­day operations. The vast quantity of in­formation that large corporations and government agencies need to operate, and the speed with which that informa­tion is created and used, makes com­puter-based information systems critical to such operations.

A management information sys­tem, or MIS, refers to a system that gathers, condenses, and filters data until it becomes information, and then makes it available on time, and in a useful form, for use in decision making at various levels of management within an organi­zation. Finding the ways to manage these data, provide up-to-date access to them, and develop new applications around them has become a major concern of MIS organizations for the last two decades.

A database management system (DBMS) is composed of three major parts: (1) a storage subsystem that stores and retrieves data in files; (2) a modelling and manipulation subsystem that pro­vides the means with which to organize the data and to add, delete, maintain, and update the data; and (3) an interface between the DBMS and its users.

Database management spans a broad range of information systems and needs. Some are based on a single personal computer and are used in an ad hoc fashion to support decision making. Others are based on several distrib­uted mainframe or minicomputers and are used to support large-scale transac­tion-processing systems. A DBMS need not be confined to stor­ing words and numbers. Manufacturing organizations use a DBMS to store engi­neering drawings, sometimes storing millions of drawings on optical disk sys­tems that resemble jukeboxes. Also, some applications may require quite specialized databases. For ex­ample, a text database is a collection of words such as articles in the Wall Street Journal or a series of legal abstracts. Such databases are either stored on-line or on CD-ROM optical disks and include the means to search through massive amounts of data to answer specific ques­tions.

TYPES OF DATABASES.

A data model describes a way to struc­ture and manipulate the data in a data­base. The structural part of the model specifies how data should be repre­sented (e.g., tree, tables, and so on). The manipulative part of the model specifies the operations with which to add, de­lete, display, maintain, print, search, se­lect, sort, and update the data. A query language provides the means to formu­late commands that permits the user to perform such data manipulation. Be­cause it is a language like a programming language, commands must be translated into a sequence of machine-language in­structions that the storage subsystem uses to manipulate the data.

The first database management systems used a hierarchical model—that is— they arranged records into a tree struc­ture. Some records are root records and all others have unique parent records. The structure of the tree is designed to reflect the order in which the data will be used—that is—the record at the root of a tree will be accessed first, then records one level below the root, and so on. The hierarchical model was devel­oped because hierarchical relationships are commonly found in business appli­cations .Hierarchical models are characterized by one-to-many rela­tionship among data.

. The next major approach to database management systems was called the net­work model, which arranged records into a linked list called a directed graph. Unlike the hierarchical database, each record in the network model can have more than one parent.

The network model has had a performance advantage over other database models, and it is used in high-volume, high-speed transaction process­ing such as ATM networks. Both hierarchical and network data­bases are application specific. If a new application is developed, a new database must be developed, though the data are the same.

A major breakthrough in database re­search occurred in 1970 when E. F. Cod proposed a fundamentally different ap­proach to database management called the relational model, which uses a table as its data structure. A table, like a spreadsheet, consists of rows and col­umns. Each row identifies a record and each column corresponds to a field. (In relational language, a table is called a relation, a row is called a tuple, and a column is called an attribute).

Structured query language (SQL), is a query language for manipu­lating data in a relational database. It is nonprocedural or declarative, in that the user need only specify an Englishlike description that specifies the

operation and the desired record or combination of records. A query optimizer translates the description into a procedure to per­form the database manipulation. Relational databases do not to be application specific. They can solve most of the problems when developing new applications by providing data independence, the ability of database to exist independently of specific applications.

The newest approach to database man­agement uses an object model, in which records are represented by enti­ties called objects that can both store data and provide methods or procedures to perform specific tasks. Like an engineering “black box,” the inner work­ings of an object are hidden or encapsu­lated. Each object belongs to a family or class of similar objects. The class is a template that describes the common characteristics of a set of objects. Although objects can be simple, the object model is used to handle complex data.

    1. Give the definition of the following terms in English.

Object model, query language, SQL, table, data independence, relational model

1.4 Translate the following word-combinations into English.

Деревоподібна структура, формулювати команди, маніпулювання даними, забезпечувати доступ, існувати незалежно, твірний елемент, поновлювати дані, опис, кореневий запис, маніпуляційна частина, послідовність команд, на фізичному рівні, на логічному рівні, оптимізатор запитів, реляційна база даних.

1.5Translate the following sentences into English.

  1. Кожна база даних містить інформацію про певний клас об’єктів.

2. Основу реляційної моделі становлять двовимірні таблиці.

3. Дані таблиць можна зберігати, доповнювати, вилучати, переглядати, редагувати, сортувати або фільтрувати за досить складними критеріями. дані в таблицях. додані або вилучені записи

4. З допомогою запитів можуть бути виконані обчислення, відновлені дані в таблицях, додані або вилучені записи.

5. Зв’язок “один- до- багатьох” є найзагальнішим.

6, Застосовуючи мережеву модель, можна зв’язувати екземпляри запису з допомогою вкaзівника з іншими екземплярами у базі даних.

1.6 Fill in the blanks with the words from the box.

Query language, natural-user interface, database, data independence, data, query languages

1 .There are specialized ... that perform specific functions.

2. A … allows the user to question the database in a free-form language such as English.

3. If a new application is developed, a new … must be developed.

4. Relational databases can solve most of the problems when developing new applications by providing

5. All databases include some kind of … to perform data manipulation.

6. … are the raw material from which information is produced.

1.7 Answer the questions.

1. What is he role of computers and information systems in the operation of businesses, government agencies and other organizations?

2. What functions does MIS perform?

3 . What are the major part of MIS?

4. What models does MIS use?

5. What is the most popular database model today?

6. What language is used for manipulating data in a relational model?

7. Give examples of object-oriented database.

2.1 Translate the following words and word-combinations.

Physically separate com­puters, with­out regard to, bridge the gap, incompat­ible data formats, formulate a query, download the requested data, access, “behind- the-scenes” details, partially, spread the files, duplicate files, request a record, eliminate, read a record, centralized control, transfer the data, a slave.

2.2 Learn key-words and word-combinations.

authorized (adj) - дозволений

database server -сервер бази даних

data security – захист даних

database integrity -цілісність даних

distributed database –розподілена база даних

distributed processing - розподілене опрацювання

file server – файловий процесор

incompatible data format –несумісний формат даних

record locking – блокування запису

reside(v) – (постійно) перебувати

slave(adj) – підлеглий, підпорядкований

terminate a link - завершувати зв’язок

    1. Read and translate the text.

DISTRIBUTED DATABASE

Distributed database is one in which different parts of the data­base reside on physically separate com­puters.

One goal of distributed data­ bases is the access of information with­out regard to where the data might be stored. Distributed databases require soft­ware that resides partially in the personal computer and partially in the larger com­puter. This software bridges the gap be­tween personal and larger computers and resolves the problems of incompat­ible data formats. Ideally, it would make the mainframe databases appear to be large libraries of information, with most of the processing accomplished on the personal computer. As an example, suppose a person wants to obtain some financial data from a corporate database to use in a spread­sheet program. Software would allow the user to formulate a query by ex­ample. Then the program establishes contact with the database, translates the user’s request into SQL, downloads the requested data to the personal com­puter, terminates the link to the data­base, and transfers the data directly into the format needed by a spreadsheet pro­gram. All this is accomplished without the user having to understand the “behind- the-scenes” details of the process involved.

A drawback to some distributed systems is that they are often based on what is often called a mainframe-centric model, in which the larger host computer is seen as the master and the termi­nal or personal computer is seen as a slave. There are some advantages to this approach. With databases under central­ized control, many of the problems of data integrity and security are solved. But today’s personal computers, departmental com­puters, and distributed processing re­quire computers and their applications to communicate with each other on a more equal or peer-to-peer basis. In a database, the client/server model pro­vides the framework for distributing da­tabases

A file server is software that provides access to files across a network. A dedi­cated file server is a single computer dedicated to being a file server. This is useful if the files are large and require fast access. In such cases, a minicom­puter or a mainframe would be used as a file server. A distributed file server spreads the files around on individual computers instead of placing them on one dedicated computer.

Advantages of the latter server in­clude the ability to store and retrieve files on other computers and the elimi­nation of duplicate files at each com­puter. A major disadvantage, however, is that individual read/write requests are moved across the network and prob­lems can arise when updating files. Sup­pose one user requests a record from a file and changes it while another user requests the same record and changes it too. The solution to this problem is called record locking, which means that the first request for a record locks the record to other users, making them wait until the first request is satisfied. Other users may be able to read the record, but they will not be able to change it.

A database server is software that ser­vices requests to a database across a net­work. For example, suppose a user types in a query for data on his or her personal computer. If the application is designed with the client/server model in mind, the query-language part on the personal computer simply sends the query across the network to the database server and requests to be notified when the data are found.

Distributing databases is an evolu­tionary step because it is logical that data should exist at the location at which they are being used. Departmental comput­ers within a large corporation, for ex­ample, should have data reside locally, yet those data should be accessible by authorized corporate management when they want to consolidate depart­mental data. DBMS software protects the security and integrity of the data­base, and the distributed database ap­pears to its users as no different from the non-distributed database.

    1. Give the definition of the following terms in English.

Database server query record locking distributed file server host com­puter client/server model

2.6 Translate the following words and phrases into English.

Забезпечувати доступ до файлів, запит, блокувати запис, встановлювати зв’язок з базою даних, електронна таблиця, головний комп’ютер, підлеглий комп’ютер, вирішувати проблему, несумісний формат даних, одержати дані, цілісність даних посилати дані, структурувати дані.

    1. Answer the questions.

  1. What is a goal of distributed database?

  2. What software do distributed databases require?

  3. What are the advantages of distributed databases?

  4. What are the advantages and drawbacks of a mainframe-centric model?

  5. Explain the difference between dedicated and distributed file servers. Speak on their advantages

  6. and disadvantages.

  7. What are the effects of information technology on people?

TEST YOURSELF

Match the following key terms to the appropriate definition:

A.

1. Management information system (MIS)

2. Information technology

3. Hierarchical model

4. Network model

5. Query language

6. Database management system (DBMS)

7. Data model

  1. A system that gathers, condenses, and filters data until it becomes information, and then makes it available on time, and in a useful form, for use in decision making at various levels of management within an organization.

  2. A description of a way to structure and manipulate the data in a database.

  3. A collective term for computer and communication hard­ware and system-and-application software.

  4. The means to question the database in free-form English.

  5. Arranging records into a tree structure.

  6. Arranging records into a linked list called a directed graph.

  7. The means to formulate commands that permits the user to perform such data manipulation.

  8. A storage subsystem, a modelling and manipulation sub­system, and an interface between the DBMS and its users.

B.

1. Relational model

2. Table

3. Structured query language (SQL)

4. Data independence

5. Object model

6. Key field

7. Form

8. Sorting

9. Distributed database

10. File server

11.Database server

a. A set of rows and columns.

b. The ability of a database to exist independently of specific applications.

c. Arranging records into entities that can store both data and procedures.

d. A database in which different parts of the database reside on physically separate computers.

e. The means to identify the names and characteristics of the fields within a record.

f. Arranging records into table structure.

g. Software that services requests to a database across a network.

h. Software that provides access to files across a network.

i. Rearranging the records in a database according to a set of predefined criteria.

j. A field that eliminates the problem of duplicate records.

k. A query language for manipulating data in a relational database.

True/False:

12. Historically, the role of MIS has been to use information in strategic ways.

13. Relational databases were developed before hierarchical databases.

14. In theory, databases should exist independently of the specific applications.

15. A DBMS is confined to storing words and numbers.

16. The structural part of a data model specifies how data should be represented.

17. A query language is similar to a programming language.

18. Maintaining the consistency of hierarchical databases in different applications is a simple matter.

19. A goal of distributing databases is accessing information without regard to where the infor­mation is stored.

Multiple Choice:

20. .Which of the following is not a part of a database management system

a. A storage subsystem.

b. A modelling and manipulation subsystem.

c. A communications subsystem.

d. An interface.

22. The hierarchical model creates relationships among data by

a. Creating linked lists with pointers.

b. Creating two-dimensional tables.

c. Structuring data into rows and columns.

d. Structuring data into an inverted tree.

23. The most popular database model today is

a. Relational.

b. Hierarchical.

c. Network.

d. Object-oriented.

24. In the relational model, fields are represented by

a. Linked lists.

b. Pointers.

c. Vertical columns.

d. Horizontal rows.

25. Which of the following is not a basic data-manipulation operation.

a. Retrieving information.

b. Modifying the database.

c. Deleting old information from the database.

d. Sorting the database.

26. Distributing databases is an evolutionary step because

a. Client/server computing is no longer in use.

b. Data should exist at the location at which they are being used.

c. They are often based on a mainframe-centric model.

d. They cannot replace one central computing facility.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

1. Read and discuss the article. Do you agree or disagree with the author? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

IS TECHNOLOGY MAKING US INTIMATE STRANGERS?

Cell phones and beepers keep us in touch, but they also keep us from the best of ourselves and others. Every day when I walk out of my house I feel surrounded. Surrounded by mere civilians so loaded down with the latest equipment that any military commander would be envious. Cell phones, beepers, headsets, watches that both tell time and give good e-mail— devices that allow you to keep up and keep track. and that keep you tethered to the daily grind. America is on the move, utterly self-absorbed, multi-tasking, busy, busy, busy.

So what's the matter with me, daring to go about the streets without any of these things, a dinosaur sorely out of step with the times? Frankly, I worry about the freedom we give up, the time to think and reflect, the time to consider where we've been in order to see where we are — or want to be — going. For many people, these are painful things they don’t necessarily want to dwell on. Self-reflection is far different — and far more difficult — than self-absorption but the pain that self- absorption can inflict on others is acute. Last summer, on as lovely an evening as one can hope for in central Virginia, I was at my daughter’s lacrosse practice. Standing next to me was a father more intent on the cell-phone conversation he was having (which did not sound terribly pressing) than on watching his daughter play. Time and again, she would look toward him, craving his attention but he never saw her.

Now some confessions are in order. I've had e-mail only for a little more than a year, and I worry that I'm starting to become obsessed with it. In the intoxicating game of popularity that we all play, e-mail has presented another way for others, to reach out to us. If someone hasn't left us a phone message or a fax, there is always the chance that an e-mail awaits. I can't even finish this essay without checking — three times already — to see if another one came through. I have also checked my stocks and a favorite Web site — all because they are there and are so tantalizinglv available. I am not proud of my lack of discipline but there-you have it. Nor am I proud of the fact that when I read to my 6-year- old daughter at night I sometimes reach for the phone when it rings, only to have her admonish me — "Daddy, don't!" a sharp rebuke for being so quick to interrupt our sacred time together.

Speaking of which, do you remember when you and your friends would go to the beach to swim and sun and take leave of your lives for an afternoon or longer? These days, I go to the beach and see teenagers come out of the water and instantly_get on their cell phones. They can’t imagine a life without a cell phone, and they can't imagine coming to the beach without it. In their view of the world, I am just a guy from the old days. Nonetheless, I still say: why not step back and view all this progress from a different angle? Instead of trying to figure out ways to do a hundred things at once, why not slow things down? After all, the greatest gift you can offer another person is your ability to listen, to let that person feel that you are intent on what he or she is saying, that you have all the time in the world. (The individuals I know who can do that are few, but they stand out conspicuously in my mind.) Through interviewing people I write about, I have come to learn how much people yearn to be understood, how much they want and need to be able to explain themselves. Technology, for the most part, creates the illusion of intimacy. As marvelous as it can be, it also, foils us. It keeps us from the best of ourselves and enables us to avoid others. It makes us into intimate strangers.

To me the most-splendid thing about a place like New York City, where I lived for a long time, is that you can walk the streets day after day, year after year and always see something new, something that will astonish or touch you. It may be a detail on a building, or the way the light hits the magnificent public library at a particular time, or even the moment when your doorman has an extra spring in his step. But if you're not open to these things, if you're too busy walking down the street glued to your phone and cut off from all that is around you, you're going to miss something. It may seem intangible and, therefore, unimportant, but those somethings have a way of adding up.

    1. Read and discuss the article. Do you support or oppose the idea of replacing traditional printed newspapers with electronic ones ?

ALL THE NEWS THAT‘S FIT TO CLICK

You can't carry a computer as easily as you can a newspaper, but you'll find a lot of other things to like about online newspapers.

More than 100 daily papers in the United States and Canada publish electronic editions. You can connect with them using your computer, a modem and an Internet browser.

Online newspapers have the most up-to-date news.

Electronic newspapers also allow you to instantly learn more about a news story through hypertext links.

Ever wish you had saved a newspaper article after you threw it away? With electronic newspapers, you can go online and find old articles you need for class discussions, reports or your own personal use.

Will traditional newspapers ever disappear? Not likely — electronic newspapers are just one more way to reach more people.

3. Read and discuss the article.

COMPUTERS ARE GETTING CHIC By Brad Stone

In the late eighties of the 21st century, when scholars are scripting the definitive history of the PC, these last few years of high-octane growth may actually be depicted as the Dark Ages. Historians will marvel at how we toiled in front of monolithic, beige BUBs (big ugly boxes), suffering under the oppressive glare of cathode-ray tubes while our legs scraped against the 30-pound towers beneath our desks.

They may also mark 1999 as the start of the PC renaissance, when manufacturers finally started to get it: design matters. This holiday season, computer shoppers will enjoy unprecedented variety in shapes, sizes and colors- and not just in Apple's groundbreaking line of translucent iMacs and iBooks. Nearly every major PC maker now has innovative desktop designs on the way to market; from hourglass-sculpted towers to flat-panel displays. Among industrial designers, who still think the PC has a long way before you'll want to display it on your mantle, the only question is, what took so long? "The PC industry has ridiculed design for a long time," says Hartmut Esslinger, founder of Frog Design. "They have not respected their customers and have underestimated their desires."

PC makers are finally catching on—and it's partly out of desperation. Manufacturers used to sell computers by trumpeting their techno bells and whistles, like processor and memory. But since ever faster chips have given us more power on the desktop than we could ever possibly use, computer makers have been competing on price—a strategy that has dropped most units below $1,000 and slashed profits. Last week IBM limped from the battlefield, announcing it would pull its lagging Aptiva line from store shelves and sell it only on the Web. Competing only on price "made an industry shakeout inevitable," says Nick Donatiello, president of the marketing-research firm

It’s Steve Job’s resurgent Apple that has shown the way out. The iMac's Popsicle colors and curvy figur have demonstrated that consumers are willing to pay more for a stylized design and a no-hassle connection to the Internet. Since the iMac's debut last year, Apple has sold 2 million units, though lately it has underestimated demand, resulting in costly shortages of the iBook and the new version of the iMac.

Nevertheless, other companies are following Apple, some more subtly than others.

In August low-cost computer maker eMachines debuted an all-in-one box PC sheathed in translucent blue plastic, dubbed eOne. Apple promptly sued over the design similarity. Last week Gateway introduced its £799 Astro, which squeezes the whole computer behind a 15-inch monitor. It's still that familiar coffee-stained beige, though clip-on colored handles will go on sale next-year. And Austin-based PC maker Dell plans to unveil a black hourglass-shaped slimtower line of computers, called WebPC, later this fall.

There's also a design upheaval going on at the high end of the price spectrum, where manufacturers can still eke out a respectable profit. Sony's latest Vaio Slimtop, announced last week, boasts a flat-panel display and a gray tower with violet trimmings. Sony used pricier notebook components to create the desktop device, which is 70 percent smaller than a normal computer and weighs a feathery 12 pounds.

And that's only the beginning. Chip makers such as Intel are creating new specs for circuit boards that will shrink PC sizes by getting rid of support for old "legacy" technologies, like floppy disk drives. At its de­veloper's forum this summer, Intel invited design firms to present concepts based on the blueprints.

One came back with a .computer shaped like a leopard-skin ottoman. The BUBs better watch out.

  1. Read and discuss the article.

IS THE PC BOOM OVER by BRAD STONE

It was strangely quiet in the PC and laptop aisles of the Union Square CompUSA in San Francisco last week. One patron was playing solitaire on a $2,600 Sony VAIO desktop. A few others were watching "Terminator 2" on a flashy flat panel screen. No one was shopping for a new computer. "When I got here four months ago, you didn't have five minutes to yourself, says salesperson Steen Lucas. "Now, there's nothing going on."

Wall Street seems to agree. In the past few weeks, profit warnings from PC makers Apple and Dell and chipmaker Intel have sent PC stocks diving in an already gloomy market. Apple is now down 65 percent since Labor Day; Dell 37 percent. PCs are also stagnating on store shelves: shipments in the United States were up only 03 percent in the first half of this year, and Apple recently announced a steep $300 rebate on its much-hyped Mac Cube. Is the PC market an engine of the Internet economy and an indicator of our overall economic health starting to sputter? The PC firms themselves don't think so. Each had an excuse ranging from weakness in the European market to consumer jitters about the economy, for what Apple CEO Steve Jobs dismissed as a "speed bump." But some analysts paint a more disturbing picture. They say the industry has reached saturation. Most consumers and businesses already own computers and replace them only once every few years.

Not that long ago, Americans couldn't buy PCs fast enough. The industry has enjoyed a robust 15 to 20 percent growth rate since the mid-90s, and today, 57 percent of households own a computer, according to Odyssey, a (market) research firm. But the unwired minority will be a hard nut to crack, says Gartner Dataquest analyst Martin Reynolds. "We're looking at households that have very limited resources or have

no need for a PC" As a result, data firm IDC scaled back its predictions for growth in the US market and now thinks sales this year will increase by only 12 percent—while Reynolds speculates growth could stop altogether within two years. Another factor contributing to the slowdown is that even the cheapest PCs today have the memory and processing muscle to run most software and connect to the Net. Consumers are therefore buying cheaper models, which translates into a lower average selling price and meeker profits. Gateway CEO Jeff Weitzen said as much last week. He announced his company had actually met earnings estimates, but he credited non-PC sources of revenues like consumer-training programs and Internet access, which now account for half the company's profits. "There is no doubt that the traditional PC industry, where we just pushed the latest and greatest hardware ...out the door is rapidly changing," he said. In other words, the PC business is a pretty volatile place to be these days.

5. Read and discuss the article. Express your opinion on the issue using specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

NET PROFIT

Staying ahead for Bill Gates means looking ahead, craning further and further into the unknown. He is bored by the temporal; he spends his life in the future, and he can't wait to get there, racing through his schedules, anticipating problems and questions, talking over the slow responses of people around him.

He details the miracles of the future in his book: the wonder of the wallet-sized PC that will make cash redundant; of telecommuters and video-conferencing; of hiring entertainment, ordering shopping, making friends, playing Scrabble without meeting another person; of pen-based computers that recognise handwriting and software that can 'remember' like an assistant.

This is a world where we will be able to select how the movie ends and speak to its characters; where electronic 'agents', like spirit guides, will lead us by the hand through cyberspace; where we can summon up a Picasso, hold a sick baby before a screen for diagnosis, commit our whole lives to the system so that when we are accused we can say, in Gates's words, 'Hey Buddy, I have a documented life.'

The Internet, he enthuses, will even vet our friends in a dangerous world; randomness will be a mere memory. 'I think this is a wonderful time to be alive,' Gates says. 'There have never been so many opportunities to do things that were impossible before. It is the best time ever to start new companies, advance sciences such as medicine that improve the quality of life. He wants the world to share his optimism and he sees his book as a way of inviting everyone to join the discussion 'about how we should be shaping the future'. 'The network will draw us so together, if that's what we choose, or let us scatter ourselves into a million mediated communities. Above all, the information highway will give us the choices that can put us in touch with entertainment, information and each other.'

Most transforming of our personal lives will be the wallet PC, a combination of purse, credit card, universal entry ticket and best friend. We will no longer need to carry keys, cash, cameras, concert tickets, cellular phone - all will be contained in one small computer.

'Rather than holding paper money, the new wallet will store unforgeable digital money,' says Gates, who likens it to his boyhood Swiss army penknife. There will be no queues at airports, theatres or anywhere one is expected to show a ticket. The wallet will connect to the venue's system and prove that we have paid.

So where does Gates see himself when he's 70? He couldn't imagine. If the future is where he wants to be, old makes no sense to him. 'Are you asking where I'll be if I'm dead by then?'

Cyberheaven?

6. Read and discuss the article. Do mobile phones make it easier or more difficult to deceive people about your location, activities and intentions? Express your opinion on the issue, use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

YOUR CHEATING PHONE Like many technologies, the mobile phone makes possible new kinds of deception-and new ways to catch out the dishonest. Call someone from a mo­bile phone, for example, and you can pre­tend to be anywhere. But if someone calls you, the ringing tone they hear before you answer depends on which country you are in—and may reveal your location. Hong Kong businessmen, for example, once did not dare to leave their mobile phones switched on while visiting sleazy Macau, because the change in ringing tone could betray them. After the ringing tone for Macau was changed to sound like Hong Kong's, however, they could safely leave their phones on, and roam­ing revenues soared.

.As mobile phones become more so­phisticated, the possibilities for decep­tion-and for exposing it-are increasing. The latest handsets have high-resolution cameras and satellite positioning, which can prove embarrassing to anyone who lies about their location and is then asked to produce a picture or a satellite fix to prove it. Nemesysco, an Israeli firm, has developed voice-stress analysis software that can, it claims, turn a mobile phone into a rudimentary lie detector. And new "third generation" (3G) mobile phones support video calling, though few people are using it so far.

Jakob Nielsen, a specialist in computer interfaces, worries that all this technol­ogy has made its users too accountable. "You don't want your phone to start squealing on you," he says. "Sometimes you might want to take a call by the pool, or in your pyjamas." He need not worry: there is a constant stream of new ways to facilitate phone-based deception.

For example, Liviu Tofan and Razvan Dragomirescu, the founders of Simeda, a German mobile-services firm, wondered whether "blue screen" technology from the television and movie industries, which is used to add fake backgrounds behind presenters and actors, could be applied to mobile video-telephony. Us­ers could then appear to be at the office while lounging on the beach.

When this proved to be too techni­cally difficult, the pair came up with an audio version of their idea instead, called SounderCover. It allows users of certain Nokia handsets to play pre-recorded bursts of traffic noise, airport announce­ments or other sounds in the background during a conversation. Specific sounds can be assigned to different people in the phone's address book, and triggered when they call. But despite its slo­gan—"Hide behind sound, make it your alibi"-Mr Tofan says most customers use SounderCover for fun. Many create their own sounds, such as a shoot-out or a love scene, to play tricks on their friends.

Mobile-phone deception is not limited to tricking people at the other end of the line. Two ser­vices offered by American oper­ators, Cingular's Escape-A-Date and Virgin Mobile's Rescue Ring, allow customers to prearrange a call at a given time, to enable them to get out of a disastrous dinner date or boring meeting. With Cingular's service, for exam­ple, the phone rings and a recorded voice says: "Hey, this is your Escape-A-Date call. If you're looking for an excuse, I got it. Just repeat after me, and you'll be on your way. 'Not again! Why does that always happen to you? All right, I'll be right there.' Now tell 'em that your room-mate got locked out, and you have to go let them in. Good luck!" (Never believe anyone who tries that excuse, then.)

Both fake background noises and fake emergency calls still require you to be a convincing liar, however. Some people find it difficult to lie in person. One sur­vey, carried out by Freever, a mobile-ser­vices firm, found that 45% of Britons had lied about their whereabouts by text message, and 22% would rather text than phone when faking an illness. If you are bad at telling lies yourself, why not out­source the job to someone else?

That is the idea behind "alibi clubs", in which a group of people agree to provide fake alibis for each other. For example, the "Alibi and Excuse Club" was set up last year at SMS.ac, a mobile-chat com­munity. It has since attracted over 6,800 members, though this correspondent's request for someone to provide an excuse to help extend his copy deadline did not produce a response. But a spokesman for SMS.ac recounts several colourful stories told about the club: one member needed an excuse when a baseball game made him late for a party, for example, while another wanted to take a day off from work to go to the beach.

James Katz, a professor of video communications at Rutgers Uni­versity, says alibi clubs are a cute idea and may have some oddball uses, but will only ever appeal to a tiny minority. And even if the tall stories told about such clubs are to be believed-some of them, like the tale of a woman who supposedly broke off her engagement via an alibi club, sound suspiciously like urban legends-the problem remains that the lies told are only ever as convincing as the people who tell them.

Given the limitations of these various mobile-phone deception schemes, perhaps what is needed is a more profes­sional approach: a fee-based service that uses trained actors to deliver plausible, pre-scripted and even personal­ised alibis. That would surely be more convincing than clunky techno­logical tricks or networks of dubious strangers. No doubt an entrepreneur somewhere is already drawing up a business plan for a new firm: Alibis, Inc.

7 . Read and discuss the article. Do you agree that games are important for children? What is your attitude to computer games? Do you support or oppose the idea that computer games affect children’s health badly? Express your opinion on the issue, use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

GAME PRINCIPLES RESEARCH CENTRE (GPRC) is the group of researchers, whose attention is concentrated on the phenomena of the socio-cultural reality connected to GAME practices, GPRC considers, that both game practices of the past and the present always rendered positive influence on the human being. In a society they carried out functions of training, psychotherapy and entertaining, socializing the person. Today the interest to game practices has increased strongly, that makes their complex research more urgent. Special interest represents a phenomenon of computer games. Tremendously extended market of computer games forces the researchers to pay attention to its quality because the influence of game software on human mind is ambiguous. The research of the computer game problem is possible only at solid methodological base and scientific approach.

Computer and children health . We should especially note the problem: computer and children. Nowadays in the world there is a powerful industry of computer games. A huge number of companies compete for the superiority (and subsequently for significant profits) on the market, creating beautiful and fascinating, cunning and intricate, aggressive and bloodthirsty games for boys and girls of all ages. Owing to their anatomic and physiological features, children are the most sensitive to external influences. They devote all their free time to games with a great pleasure. In this connection we should remember about a great danger. Children are in much lesser degree than adults capable to control their conduct and being carried away they can't tear themselves away from a display, where thrilling events are taking place. But their mentality is very unstable; therefore, exorbitant passion for computer games can become a reason of very severe consequences: exaggerated excitability, decrease in school results, a child becomes capricious, uncontrollable, ceases to be interested in anything except a computer. In its influence on a child organism a computer game resembles a drug.

In Japan and England doctors discovered a disease of a new kind among some children who were keen on computer games since early age - video game epilepsy syndrome. The symptoms of this disease are headaches, prolonged spasms of face muscles, and dysfunction of eyesight. The syndrome, although not leading to the fading of mental capabilities, contributes to the forming of typical to epilepsy negative character features, such as suspiciousness, hypochondria, hostile and aggressive attitude towards relatives, impetuosity and irascibility.

It does not follow from all said above that a child can't be allowed to use a computer at any chance, but parents should very strongly measure out computer time, especially in the case when there are no devices for protection against a negative impact of torsion fields.

It should be noted that in recent times there was the appearance of religious literature about a negative impact of TV sets and computer equipment. Children psychologies and psychiatrist consider that the main children diseases in the XXI century will be the diseases connected with a negative impact of TV sets and computers. Television encodes the behavior of a child or teenager by different means, voluntarily and not, making him or her live according to the laws of screen world.

Psychogenic influence on a human can be produced by different means, for example, with the help of color. Many scientists researched the influence of colors on mentality. Lusher's test - one of the most widespread and reliable tests. An examinee is proposed to choose a favorite color from a variety, then - from the rest again the favourite color and so on. Making the comparative analysis, scientists obtain conclusions about psycho-emotional condition of a human and about his or her health. The same Lusher solved one more task: presenting colors to a human according to the specific program, he changed his or her emotional and physical condition. Thus, if a special color spectrum is used for a game, then a lot can be obtained...

"It seems like computerization gave rise to one more misfortune - passion for the Internet", - is announced in "Canadian Medical Association Journal". Doctor Yang observed 496 patients, 396 of them had unhealthy passion for the Internet. She noted that in its nature this phenomenon resembles alcoholism or irresistible craving for gambling. In the journal it is underlined that those who have a computer at home are under the greatest risks.

As experience shows, the ideas of protection against a negative influence of torsion fields of PC displays and other electronic equipment are accepted with difficulty. However, one should not forget that there are the numerous proofs of a negative influence of PC displays on users even in the presence of protective devices in the form of filters of different modification. The science should deal with explanation of the mentioned facts, because, as I. I. Pavlov said, "facts are the air of science". Even if they are beyond the conceptions worked out by science.

The traditional reasons are conditioned by the conceptions formed in the science and relate not only to the problems of users' protection against PC displays negative impact but as well to practically all incipient branches of scientific knowledge. The American scientific sociologist Kun in his book "The structure of scientific revolutions" shows that wide scientific community begins to accept experimental results which are beyond the generally accepted theoretical concepts, as a rule, after appearance of hypotheses, concepts, theories, in whose framework their scientific interpretation is possible. Until this, paradoxical facts are ignored; scientists do not take them into account in their activity.

The spread of new ideas goes, as a rule, simultaneously with the appearance of a new generation of scientists who are free from the burden of past, obsolescent concepts, and they become thus the bearers of the ideas of a new paradigm.

  1. Read and discuss the artic le. Why do you think some people are inclined to using jargon?

Why are these bit streams of weird words more than just a conspiracy designed to confuse the innocent? Explain your opinion, using specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

CHASING THE JARGON JITTERS.

By Steve Pinker (Steven Pinker, professor of cognitive sci­ ence at M.I.T., is author of The Language Instinct (HarperCollins).

RAM, ROM, MIPS, FLOPS, CPUS, IRQs, asynchronous floating­point multitasking initial­ization delimiters—why do computers breed so much godawful jargon? Is it all a bunch of incantations muttered by the wireheads to intimidate new users (or, as they call us, lusers)? Will digital argot corrupt the English language, leading future gen­erations to mumble in the acronym-clot­ted gobbledygook of computer manuals? Negative. Computer jargon is inevit­able, even welcome. As far as jargon goes, it's not so bad, and English will be the bet­ter for it.

Jargon, like cholesterol, comes in good and bad kinds. One of the bad kinds is government doublespeak: pacification (bombing), inoperative statement (lie), revenue enhancement (taxes), energetic disassembly (what happened at Cher­nobyl). Another is social-science baffle­gab: high-falutin' lingo, like strategized interpersonal programmatics and amel­ iorative contextual interactions, that hides the fact that the academician is talk­ing about banalities or nothing at all. Then there are the rapidly changing shibboleths and code words that separate the elite from the rabble, the cool from the dweebs. But sometimes sincere, plainspeaking folks simply need names for things. Knit­ting, golf, cooking, fly fishing, bridge - every specialized activity evolves its own jargon. Just as Adam had to give names to every beast of the field and every fowl of the air, the first person who wants to identify a new gizmo to a listener has to figure out what kind of noise to make to get the idea across. Language provides two options. One is to cobble together a phrase describing the gizmo. When biblical Hebrew was revived in Israel and had to be embellished to meet 20th century demands, the first translation of microscope was "the device that makes the hyssop on the wall lock like the cedars of Lebanon." It's clear, poetic even, but if you imagine a conversation among harried lab technicians, you immediately see the problem. The option at the other extreme is to coin a nice, simple word, like flurg. That's short and sweet, but unless you are a member of a clique who is in contact with the dubber and have memorized the coin­age, it's gibberish. Clarity and conciseness trade off; you can be either clear and ver­bose or concise and opaque.

Most jargon starts off near the clear but long-winded end of the trade-off. New words are manufactured by gluing old ones together, adding prefixes and suffixes and borrowing words from other languages. But as people become familiar with a term, they try to keep the attention of their listeners by abbreviating it. Frequently used words inexorably slide toward the short and opaque end of the continuum. If Benjamin Franklin were transported from the 18thcentury to the first half of this century, he could make educated guesses about the meanings of refrigerator, television and even facsimile ("make similar"). But were he to arrive in the second half, fridge, TV and fax would leave him baffled.

Computer jargon has its share of the unwieldy turned unclear. Disk Operating System becomes DOS; modulator-demod­ulator becomes modem; multiplexer be­comes mux. But some of it is downright cuddly—mouse, floppy, handshake, bug, shareware, number crunching, snarfing and readme files, for example. Who let them in? To answer the question, you have to know two more jargon words, which identify the main cultures of computing: the hackers and the suits.

Contrary to media usage, "hackers" are not pranksters who break into mainframe computers and accidentally start World War III or, worse, the loathsome creeps who devise and spread viruses in real life.

Those are "crackers."A hacker is a member of an unofficial meritocracy whose mem­bers are distinguished by their ability to program quickly and enthusiastically. They do not fit the stereotype of the pasty-faced, polyester-clad, pocket-protected need-a-lifes. Rather, they are literate, articulate quasi-hippies, and their culture esteems precise, witty wordplay.

Eric Raymond's The New Hacker's Dictionary (M.I.T. Press) provides a glimpse of the vast lexicon that supplies the friendlier examples of our computer jargon. By analogy to a typo, absentminded hackers can make a thinko or a braino. Exiting a window on the screen is defenes­trating; leaving off the page numbers at the foot of a printed document is depedatating it ("cutting off its feet," by analogy with decapitating). A poorly designed pro­gram might be barfulous (nauseating) or display a high degree of bogosity. Such bogotified programs can be detected with that hypothetical but indispensable instru­ment, the "bogometer." Bogometers are also useful in the presence of politicians, professors with a Theory of Everything and, most of all, the dreaded suits.

The Hacker's Dictionary defines suit as follows: "1. Ugly and uncomfortable business clothing' often worn by non-hackers. Invariably worn with a 'tie,' a strangulation device that partially cuts off the blood supply to the brain. It is thought that this explains much about the behavior of suit wearers. 2. A person who habitually wears suits. See loser, burble, manage­ment and brain-damaged." Hackers are exasperated by the suits' breathless prom­ises to customers of features that are ex­tremely difficult to program or that violate the laws of physics and even more con­temptuous of their buzz word-laden ad-speak (synergy, interface), their inelegant neologisms (prioritize, securitize) and their technical malaprops (such as para­meter referring to limits rather than to dimension of variation). At least to hear the hackers talk, the more awful computer jar­gon can be attributed to management.

But putting aside who is to blame for all that lingo, what's a poor luser to do? The answer is certainly not to sit down and mem­orize a glossary as if it were high school Latin homework. Instead think of the cir­cumstances in which you actually welcome jargon. You are at the parts counter at the hardware store desperately pantomiming and circumlocuting, begging for the long rubber thingummybob that keeps the soapy water from getting all over the floor. If only you had remembered it is called a gasket! Necessity is the mother of vocabu­lary. Most people learn what ram means when they first discover they need more of it. The trick to mastering computer jargon is first to master the computer. As the widgets and rituals become second nature, they turn into mental pegs upon which to hang the words. Of course the hackers and man­ual writers have a responsibility too: to pick metaphors that keep the lingo both trans­parent and concise and allow lusers to get work done needing as little of it as possible.

And what about the English lan­guage? Like it or not, dozens of computer-inspired words have been co-opted into everyday conversation and writing: bells and whistles, bootstrap, debug, flame (ful­minate self-righteously), hack, hardwired, interactive, kluge (a clumsy but service­able solution), real time, snail-mail, soft­ware, time-sharing and virtual (simulated). Language lovers, relax; this is what the hackers would call a Good Thing.

For centuries English has been snarfing up the jargon of various cliques, cults, guilds and subcultures. The dictionary has thou­sands of examples:countdown and blast-off from the space program, souped-up and shift gears from the automobile, trip and freak out from drug users, boogie and jam from jazz, and so on. Go back even further, and you find that thousands of currently unexceptionable words were at one time denounced as corruptions—sham, banter, mob, stingy and fun, for example. In fact, when you think about it, where else could words come from but slang? Not from some committee! The breathtaking half-a-mil-lion-word vocabulary of English is built from the grass-roots contributions of count­less slang slingers and jargon mongers.

If you ever find yourself longing for a language with a more orderly admissions procedure, I give you French. They have had the Academie Francaise and the Gen­eral Delegation of the French Language and the High Council of the French Lan­guage and the Francophone High Council all charged with keeping the language "pure" (sometimes with the authority to levy fines and jail sentences).Originally concerned with finding replacements forle cheeseburger and le weekend, the com­mittees have become increasingly anxious about imported computer jargon. Com­ puter, software, data processing, kit, video clip and buffer have been deemed linguis­tically incorrect; les hackers of the world of informatique must use ordinateur, logiciel, traitement des donnees, kit pret a monter, bande video promotionelle and memoire tampon.

Where has it got them? Their own technology commission estimated that using the French words increases the length of a document 20%. And English has been estimated to contain three to six times as many words as French. Some might say cen­turies of guarding the purity of the French language have left it with verbose expres­sions and a puny vocabulary. But then what can you expect from a bunch of suits?

  1. Read and discuss the article. Do you believe that the future is fuzzy? Explain your opinion, referring to scientific journals.

SMART MACHINES

Pop a snack into a fuzzy microwave oven, leave the room and just forget about it.
No, your treat won't come out half raw or burnt to a crisp. .Fuzzy microwaves cook foods perfectly all by themselves. And no, they're not covered with fuzz. Fuzzy refers to the fuzzy logic computer chip inside the oven. This chip turns an ordinarily dumb machine into one smart cookie.

Not Just Microwaves Fuzzy logic is spiffy technology that can make almost any machine work better.

Fuzzy washing machines automatically know how much soap and water to add to a load of laundry. They stop washing as soon as the clothes are clean.

Fuzzy, automobiles adjust themselves to fit driving conditions. This saves gas and gives a better ride.

Fuzzy cameras adjust themselves so even a beginner can take good pictures, with every photograph in focus. Fuzzy video cameras remove the jiggle.

It's a technology that will change forever the way we deal with machines.

FUZZY LOGIC

"When Theseus returned from slaying the Minotaur, says Plutarch, the Athenians preserved his ship, and as planks rotted, replaced them with new ones. When the first plank was replaced, everyone agreed it was still the same ship. Adding a second plank made no difference either. At some point, the Athenians may have replaced every plank in the ship. Was it a different ship? At what point did it become one?"

Questions of the above nature, bothered people acquainted with a classical logic for ages. The Aristotelian concept of the excluded middle, where every logical preposition has to either be completely true or false, does not seem to fulfill expectations of nowadays very technical and logic dependent world. Nevertheless, most computer, control system engineers and many other people involved in modeling and programing behavior still rely on the True/False conditions and differential equations. There were several people who tried to adjust classical logic to accept a broader concept of something being true or false. In the early 1900's, Lukasiewicz presented his three-valued logic, where the third value proposed could be described as "possible", and had a numeric value between True and False. His efforts were followed by Knuth, but none of the notions gained a wide acceptance. It was not until 1965, when Lotfi Zadeh published his works on fuzzy sets and math accompanying them. The theory quickly was branded fuzzy logic. It created a lot of new possibilities along with controversy and misunderstandings. This paper attempts to give a general description of the concepts of fuzzy logic and applications that might benefit from it.

The classical logic relies on something being either True or False. A True element is usually assigned a value of 1, while False has a value of 0. Thus, something either completely belongs to a set or it is completely excluded from it. The fuzzy logic broadens this definition of membership. The basis of the logic are fuzzy sets. Unlike in "crisp" sets, where membership is full or none, an object is allowed to belong only partly to one set. The membership of an object to a particular set is described by a real value from the range between 0 and 1. Thus, for instance, an element can have a membership value 0.5, which describes a 50% membership in a given set. Such logic allows a much easier application of many problems that cannot be easily implemented using classical approach.

For example, considering a set of tall people in the classical logic, one has to decide where is the border between the tall people and people that are not tall. If the border is set to ex. 6 feet, than, if the person is 6 feet and 1 inch tall, it belongs to the set of tall people. If the person is 5 feet 11 inches tall it does not belong to the set. In this case such a representation of reality leaves much to be desired. On the other hand, using the fuzzy logic, the person being 6-1 tall can still have a full membership of the set of tall people, but the person that is 5-11 tall, can have 90% membership of the set. The 5-11 person thus can have, what can be described as a "quite tall" representation in a model.

Such a classification certainly allows a single object to be a member of two mutually exclusive in the "crisp" sense sets. For example a person 5 feet and 5 inches tall can be classified as 0.5 tall and also 0.3 short, thus it could be described as "rather tall" and at the same time "sort of short". A single element membership to different sets does not have to add up to any particular value. Although, a membership to a negative set (ex. a set of not tall people) has to equal to 1 minus membership to the positive set (a set of tall people).

Because of the above alterations, some logical operations had to be also modified. For the union of two sets, it was found, the result is the higher membership value out of the two. For example if an element is a person that is 0.6 member of a set of smart people and 0.7 member of a set of pretty people, it makes logical sense to state that such person has 0.7 membership in a set of smart or pretty people. The intersection of the two sets is the minimal element of the operators. Thus, referring to the above example, the person would be only 0.6 member of a set of smart and pretty people.

It is worth noting that such a representation operates on different principles than probabilistic theory, which relies on the same set of values, and is often confused with the fuzzy set manipulation. Unlike as in the fuzzy sets, where an element is partly a member of a set, the probability value describes a chance of the whole element belonging to a particular set. The union and the intersection are the most obvious differences between these two representations. In the case of the fuzzy logic adding memberships for the union of sets or multiplying memberships for the intersection makes no logical sense (ex. a person from the example being 1.3 member of a set of smart or pretty people or 0.42 member of a set of smart and pretty people).

Fuzzy logic since its beginnings stirred a lot of controversy in the United States. Although it is a reliable and consistent source of modeling reality, it is not easily representable in the form of differential equations, most control engineers nowadays have learned to rely on. The name itself became a controversy on the American market. Some people argued that it is too "fuzzy" and too unpredictable. While the States stalled in the controversy, there were thousands of successful fuzzy logic implementations performed in Japan. It is suspected that Japanese culture, which bases on the philosophy that there is no absolute good or absolute evil, had no objections to the concept of partial memberships to different groups. Thus, a lot of Japanese firms applied fuzzy logic concepts to factory and industry control systems, medical and navigational equipment, home electronics, and many more.

One of the most successful fuzzy logic implementations is the control of subway in Sendai, Japan. The fuzzy system controls acceleration, deceleration, and breaking of the train. Since its introduction, it not only reduced energy consumption by 10%, but the passengers hardly notice «now when the train is changing its velocity. In the past neither conventional, nor human control could have achieved such performance.

Generally the fuzzy logic is recommended for the implementation of a very complex processes, where a simple mathematical model cannot be obtained. Fuzzy logic can also be successfully applied to a highly nonlinear processes, where it is observed to greatly simplify the modeling. It is not recommended to employ fuzzy logic into systems where a simple and adequate mathematical model already exists or where the conventional control theory yields a satisfying result. Fuzzy logic seems to be a general case for the classical logic and as such it does not present any better solutions for problems that might be easily solved using the "crisp" sets.

The most obvious implementation for the fuzzy logic is the field of artificial intelligence. In the examples stated at the beginning of this paper it was shown how one can easily relate logic to ambiguous linguistics in form of "very", "little", "sort of, and so on. Such flexibility allows for a rapid advancements and easier implementation of projects in the field of natural language recognition. Although, fuzzy logic not only brings logic closer to natural language, but also closer to human or "natural" reasoning. Many times knowledge engineers have to deal with very vague and common sense descriptions of the reasoning leading to a desired solution. The power of fuzzy logic is to perform reasonable and meaningful operations on concepts that cannot be easily codified using a classical approach. Implementing the logic will not only make the knowledge systems more user friendly, but it also will allow programs to justify better the obtained results.

Fuzzy logic seems to be a general case for the classical logic. It modifies the rules for a set membership and defines operations on modified sets. It allows an element to belong only partly to a given set. Such modification allows for a much more flexible and wide spread use of reliable and consistent logic in a variety of applications. So far, the most common use of the fuzzy logic was encountered in the field of control systems, although the theory seems to have a big potential in the different fields of artificial intelligence. The logic stirred a lot of controversy since its introduction, but as it is successfully implemented into more and more applications, it becomes a more accepted way of modeling reality.

  1. Read the information on viruses.

ABOUT VIRUSES, WORMS & TROJANS.

What is a Computer Virus ? A computer virus is a program that requires a host in order to make copies of itself on computer disks. Viruses may infect (copy to, and spread from), program files, programs in disk sectors, and files that use macros. The ability to self-replicate distinguishes viruses from programs that do not, and this parasitic nature is neither an accident, nor a computer glitch. All viruses are created by people who know how to write computer programs.

Why are they Called Viruses? The first theories about the possibility of creating a self-replicating program date back to 1949, and experimental viruses were first programmed and tested in the 1960s. They got their name in 1984, when a university professor used the term "virus" to describe them, because like a biological virus, a computer virus is small, makes copies of itself, and cannot exist without a host. When personal computers became popular, PC viruses began to appear (in 1986-1987), at first intended as jokes, or developed for research or demonstration purposes.

What is a Computer Worm? As intranets and the Internet have grown in popularity, e-mail has evolved from a convenience to a necessity. Virus vandals know that, and they've invented new ways to use e-mail to spread viruses, and especially, worms. A worm program is similar to a virus. It is considered by some to be a subset of a virus in that it makes copies of itself but does so without needing to modify a host. Like viruses, worms may (or may not) do things other than replicate.

What is a Trojan horse? Trojan horse programs are named for the giant wooden horse that concealed Greek soldiers who used it to invade the ancient city of Troy. Like that famous trick, a Trojan horse program conceals hidden programming. The hidden function may just be a joke, or something annoying, but vandals often use Trojan horse programs to destroy other people's data, knowing that some people will run any program that

has an interesting file name, or promises to perform a useful function.

Are all these programs harmful? They waste disk space and memory, delay computer operations, and increase the likelihood of system crashes. They are often poorly written and may function erratically, overwrite data, and cause programs to run erratically. Many also have destructive routines to alter or overwrite data. In addition, the cost of antivirus software and the time recovering from virus damage is passed along to consumers by businesses at the cash register.

Who creates these programs - and why? Virus writers range from researchers, to pranksters, to malicious vandals. The typical virus writer is an otherwise intelligent male, between 15 and 23 years old. He may be bored, curious, or intent on doing forbidden things, just to frighten others. Some belong to organized virus-writing groups (usually short­lived), and those in the group often respond to peer pressure, trying to outdo the others. Whether in a group or not, some get satisfaction from the challenge, while others think of themselves as rebels against the "system."

How do they spread? Viruses and Trojans spread from one computer to another by using one or more methods, all of which depend on user carelessness. Some people never have a problem, but others who are not as careful (or lucky) infect their hard disk by running downloaded files, or after placing a newly-obtained floppy disk in a drive. Viruses and worms spread fastest among computers networked on a LAN, especially when e-mail file attachments are involved.

Is sharing files a problem? Sharing certain types of files with others always involves some certain risk. The medium is irrelevant; files from a LAN server, downloaded from Internet sites, from a floppy (even from shrink-wrapped software). Riskiest of all are files posted on Internet newsgroups, because there is no control or accountability. Many people have become the first victims of brand-new viruses and worms, by downloading executable files that were posted deliberately by vandals.

What about e-mail? Before the growth of the Internet, viruses used to spread more slowly, from user to user, and anti-virus vendors were usually able to distribute a remedy before things got out of hand. That's all changed, especially with worms, because some people will click on any e-mailed file that they receive. Vandals have seized their opportunity, and created programs designed to spread to all those who correspond with careless users. Because of this threat, the only 100 percent safe e-mail file attachment is a deleted e-mail file attachment.

Can cookie contain a virus? Some Web sites store information on your computer, in small text files called cookies, that can be used when you re-visit that site. Examples include items you've "selected for purchase, registration data, or your user name and password, for Web sites that require them. Since cookies are text files, they are not executable, and this fact eliminates the possibility of viruses, because they must be hosted by an executable file. It is theoretically possible to include UUencoded or MIME comments, but decoding a UUencoded or MIME file and executing it is not possible.

Do you need to worry?

Worrying will get you nowhere. Instead, take sensible precautions, to avoid losing data should you be affected by a program that was designed to cause problems. Many people are fortunate never to encounter one, but a vandal's program could be concealed in the next file you download, or in a file attached to an e-mail message. Or the threat could be on the next floppy you insert in a disk drive, especially one obtained from a friend, a co-worker, or a fellow student.

How can you tell whether your computer is infected?

Because some viruses cause strange things to happen, an odd or unexplained event may lead a user to conclude a virus must be responsible, without bothering to explore other possible causes. On the other hand, many viruses are carefully programmed to do nothing to betray their presence. The solution to this dilemma is not to assume anything, but to rely upon anti-virus software as a diagnostic tool.

How can you protect your data?

If you have files you can't afford to lose, make sure you have more than one copy of them. Programs may already be backed up on their original installation disks, but what about the files that you create? Business records, spreadsheets, manuscripts, and other important files can be lost in an instant to a virus, or to other causes, hard disk failure among them. If no other copy of your files exists, make copies of them, before it's too late.

11.Read and discuss the information.

INTERNET BOTS.

Internet bots, also known as web robots, WWW robots or simply bots, are software applications that run automated tasks over the internet. Typically, bots perform tasks that are both simple and structurally repetitive, at a much higher rate than would be possible for a human editor alone. The largest use of bots is in web spidering, in which an automated script fetches, analyses and files information from web servers at many times the speed of a human. Each server can have a file called robots.txt, containing rules for the spidering of that server that the bot is supposed to obey.

In addition to their uses outlined above, bots may also be implemented where a response speed faster than that of humans is required (eg gaming bots and auction-site robots) or less commonly in situations where the emulation of human activity is required, for example chat bots.

Bots are also being used as organization and content access applications for media delivery. Webot.com is one recent example of utilizing bots to deliver personal media across the web from multiple sources. In this case the bots track content updates on host computers and deliver live streaming access to a browser based logged in user.

IM and IRC

Some bots communicate with other users of Internet-based services, via instant messaging (IM),Internet Relay Chat (IRC), or another web interface. These chatterbots may allow people to ask questions in plain English and then formulate a proper response. These bots can often handle many tasks, including reporting weather, zip-code information, sports scores, converting currency or other units, etc. Others are used for entertainment, such as SmarterChild onAOL Instant Messenger andMSN Messenger and Jabberwacky onYahoo! Messenger. Another popular AIM bot is FriendBot

An additional role of IRC bots may be to lurk in the background of a conversation channel, commenting on certain phrases uttered by the participants (based on pattern matching). This is sometimes used as a help service for new users, or for censorship of profanity.

AOL Instant Messenger has now introduced a feature that allows you to make a screen name into a bot. This new feature removes the rate limit on the screen name, however it is now limited in the amount of instant messages that can be sent and received.

Commercial purposes

There has been a great deal of controversy about the use of bots in an automated trading function. Auction website eBay has been to court in an attempt to suppress a third-party company from using bots to traverse their site looking for bargains; this approach backfired on eBay and attracted the attention of further bots. TheUnited Kingdom-based bet exchange Betfair saw such a large amount of traffic coming from bots they launched a WebService API aimed at bot programmers through which Betfair can actively manage bot interactions.

Malicious purposes

Another, more malicious use of bots is the coordination and operation of an automated attack on networked computers, such as a denial-of-service attack. (see botnet ) Internet bots can also be used to commit click fraud and more recently have seen usage around MMORPG games as computer game bots. A spambot is an internet bot that attempts to spam large amounts of content on the Internet, usually adding advertising links.

There are malicious bots (and botnets) of the following types:

Spambots that harvest email addresses from contact forms or guestbook pages

Downloader programs that suck bandwidth by downloading entire web sites

Web site scrapers that grab the content of web sites and re-use it without permission on automatically generated doorway pages

Viruses and worms

Hackers

DDoS attacks

Botnets / zombie computers; etc.

Bots are also used to buy up good seats for concerts, particularly by ticket brokers who resell the tickets. Bots are employed against entertainment event-ticketing sites, like TicketMaster.com. The bots are used by ticket brokers to unfairly obtain the best seats for themselves while depriving the general public from also having a chance to obtain the good seats. The bot runs through the purchase process and obtains better seats by pulling as many seats back as it can.

Bots are often used in Massively Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Games to farm for resources that would otherwise take significant time or effort to obtain; this is a concern to most online in-game economies.



12. Read and discuss the article dedicated to a new technology in communications.

PLUGGING IN AT LAST

After years of delay, the provision of internet access over power lines is taking off—though not for the reasons you might expect. This is "a banner day.. .a historically significant day for communications," declared Michael Powell in mid-October. The chairman of America's Federal Com­munications Commission (fcc) was en­thusing about the prospects of a novel way for customers to receive ultra-fast broadband internet service in their homes: via the stodgy old power grid. The idea of using the power grid as a communications network—known as "broadband over power lines" (bpl) in America and "power-line communica­tions" (plc) in Europe—has been around for ages, but is at last being implemented. Mr Powell made his comments at a meet­ing where the fcc gave its formal bless­ing to bpl. Crucially, the agency ruled that utilities that follow certain rules (chiefly concerning radio interference) would be given a wide berth to operate as "unlicensed" entities, unencumbered by America's baffling Telecoms rules. Why bother with bpl? The fcc is keen because it will bring into the broad­band market a third group of competi­tors, after telephone firms, which use upercharged phone lines (digital sub­scriber lines, or dsl) to deliver broad­band, and cable-TV operators, which use their cables for the same purpose. An­other competing technology should lower prices, bpl may also further the fcc's goal of universal broadband ser­vice. The use of power lines means al­most everyone in the rich world should be able to receive broadband service through this approach. That is not true for cable, which does not have universal cov­erage. Utilities are already eyeing new markets in rural areas.

William Berkman of Current Commu­nications, a leading bpl operator, argues that the technology offers several advan­tages for customers, too. Connection speed is not dependent on the distance from a telephone exchange (as with dsl) or on the number of customers online at once (as with cable), bpl, unlike its rivals, offers uploads at the same speed as downloads. And, says Mr Berkman, it will ultimately offer far more capacity than today's cable networks. "This is a bet on bandwidth," he says. "You want video and TiVo over the internet? You'll get it."

Yet old hands remain sceptical, for bpl is hardly a new technology. Indeed, engi­neers tried to make it work for many years, but failed due to snags in the "last mile": in particular, the final "step-down" power transformer, at the point where the power from the grid enters a home or office, interfered with the flow of data.

But two new ways have been devised to solve this problem. One is to route around the step-down transformer using wireless technology. The transformer is often on a utility pole outside the cus­tomer's premises, so it need only be a short hop to a wireless receiver indoors. The other approach routes the data signal around the transformer and then feeds it back into the domestic electricity supply. A special modem plugged into an electri­cal outlet then deciphers the signal. This approach also allows domestic electrical wiring to double as a home network.

Despite these steps forward, several problems may yet derail bpl. One is secu­rity. Some worry that it may be too easy to pilfer your neighbour's e-mails by in­tercepting the signal from the wireless transmitter sitting on the pole between your houses. But early field trials-and there have been several dozen such trials, in America, Canada and Europe—suggest that this worry is misplaced. The most ad­vanced trial is taking place in Cincinnati, Ohio, where some 15,000 customers now receive bpl on commercial terms.

Jim Rogers, the boss of Cinergy, the trail-blazing local utility, points to the sec­ond potential snag facing bpl: the stodginess of utilities. Traditionally, the sector has not been very innovative, but in this case caution might be justified. Mr Rogers notes that risky broadband investments would need to be made today out of un­regulated profits-but with no guarantee that regulators would not claw back bpl profits tomorrow as "regulated" earnings.

Another concern is radio interference. Ham-radio operators have complained vociferously that bpl signals are "bleed­ing" from power lines and spoiling their hobby. The emergency services use some frequencies that may be affected too. So the fcc's October ruling establishes "ex­cluded frequency bands" for aeronauti­cal communications and public safety. Firms that manufacture bpl gear must "notch out" emissions within those bands, and win pre-certification from the fcc for their equipment. The regulators also created a database for tracking re­ports of alleged bpl inter­ference. Even so, the ham-radio operators were not satisfied. Yet they claim that the technology will fail to take off anyway. Their trade associ­ation claims that other broadband tech­nologies, such as Wi-Fi and new fibre-optics networks, will "leave bpl in the footnotes of technology along with the eight-track tape player."

Perhaps. But there is reason to believe that bpt. might finally start to live up to its potential, thanks to an unexpected ace in the hole that dsl and cable do not have: the big blackouts that hit North America, London and Italy last summer. Those fiascos were the result not of a shortage of generating capacity, but rather of the fail­ings of an antiquated grid. Today's electri­cal system is a creaking relic lacking the sophisticated command-and-control tools necessary to ensure reliability. As last summer's outage in America showed, local operators often do not know when or where power has gone out on their system.

bpl could change all of that. A beauti­ful side benefit of the technology is that data-enabling their power networks will let utilities monitor what is happening on their power grids in real time, down to local substations. The technology could also allow them to read power and water meters without entering customers' premises. Mr Rogers of Cinergy notes that it might also allow utilities to manage peak loads by, for example, turning down your residential air conditioner remotely while you are at the office, in return for a lower tariff.

"The reliability aspects are unbeliev­able!" gushed Nora Brownell in October as she toured a utility in Virginia that has implemented bpl. Her view matters, for she is a commissioner on the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (ferc), the country's top regulator of power utili­ties. In a telling and unorthodox show of support for the new technology, the ferc's commissioners turned up at the fcc meeting at which bpl was given the green light. Pat Wood, the ferc's boss, even offered this forecast: "It's my hope that a year from now boards of directors and shareholders and cus­tomers are all asking utilities, 'Why aren't you in bpl?'" It finally looks as though bpl's day has come. The happy collision of Mr Powell's desire for broadband competition and Mr Wood's dream of grid reliability is spurring on bpl technology. Revealingly, European officials, who have in the past been cautious about plc technology, applauded the fcc's decision in October: similar pan-European rules may be in the offing. The result could be better internet access for customers-and, just possibly, a step towards the intelligent, self-heal­ing power grid of tomorrow.

13. Read and discuss the article . Explain your opinion on today’s contest between HD-DVD and BLU-ray.

BATTLE OF THE BLUE LASERS.

Another year, another standards war in the consumer-electronics business. From the people who brought you the contest between vhs and Betamax in the 1970s comes a new saga in which two rival—and, inevitably, incompatible-formats struggle to establish themselves as the higher-capacity successor to the wildly popular dvd standard. Both new formats rely on blue lasers, which can dis­cern finer details than the red lasers used in dvd players, to squeeze more data on to each disc. This capacity can be used in two ways: to boost quality, by providing a more detailed "high definition" picture, or to increase quantity, enabling more foot­age (at dvd quality) to fit on a single disc.

In one corner is the hd-dvd format, backed by Toshiba, nec and Sanyo. The details are still sketchy-the specification will not be finalised until February—but hd-dvd will offer at least three times the storage capacity of dvd, while improved video-compression software will further boost capacity. The new format has the backing of the dvd Forum, which means it is the "official" successor to the dvd for­mat. Proponents of hd-dvd claim the discs can be made cheaply using existing dvd production lines with very little modification. The first hd-dvd devices will go on sale next year.

In the other corner is Blu-ray, backed by a consortium that includes Sony, Mat­sushita, Hitachi and Philips. Blu-ray discs have around five times the capacity of dvds, allowing each disc to store around two hours of high-definition video, or 13 hours of standard video. Sony has been selling Blu-ray recorders in Japan since 2003, and Matsushita and Sharp have both launched Blu-ray devices this year.

The battle between the two standards has heated up in recent months as the two camps fight to sign up hardware vendors and content producers, notably Holly­wood studios, which have determined the outcome of previous standards wars So how will the battle play out? Previous standards wars have been resolved in one of four different ways.

The first possibility is a compromise between the two rival formats, as hap­pened in 1995 with the dvd standard. Originally, Sony and Philips proposed a technology called mmcd, while Toshiba and its allies pushed a rival standard called sd. After much wrangling, a stan­dards war was averted when Hollywood demanded a single format. Sony compro­mised, and the result was the dvd, which is very similar to sd but borrowed some elements from mmcd. This time, how­ever, such a compromise seems unlikely, says Shyam Nagrani, an analyst atiSuppli, a market-research firm. "Nobody wants to bend," he says, since neither side wants to give up the lucrative royalties it stands to make if its standard prevails. Instead, both sides are digging in for a long fight.

A second possible outcome is that the two standards will coexist, and dual-for­mat players capable of handling both kinds of disc will render the standards war irrelevant-as happened in the tussle over recordable dvds. The dvd Forum backed a recordable format called dvd-r, but several firms, including Sony and Philips, chose to back a rival format called dvd+r. Players capable of reading and writing both kinds of disc have, however, now largely rendered the disagreement moot. Vamsi Sistla, an analyst at abi Re­search, believes the same could happen with hd-dvd and Blu-ray. Building a player that works with both kinds of disc will be difficult, he concedes, but consumer-electronics firms support multiple competing formats in other areas. Yet Mr Nagrani argues that in this case the two formats are so different that dual-format players would be far too expensive.

A third possibility is that the market will be stillborn: the lack of a common standard will deter consumers from up­grading, as happened with the two rival successors to the cd audio format, dvd-a (backed by the dvd Forum) and sacd (backed, inevitably, by Sony and Philips). Hybrid players can now play both kinds of disc, but neither format has taken off. Music and video are, however, very dif­ferent. The popularity of the MP3 format suggests that most people are not too bothered about audio quality. In the case of video, however, there is a reason to up grade. The new high-capacity discs will be able to hold an entire series of a sitcom, and there is bound to be demand for high-definition versions of popular movies such as "Lord of the Rings" and "Star Wars" that feature spectacular special ef­fects. And as large televisions become more popular, says Mr Nagrani, people will demand higher image quality.

There can be only one

All of this suggests that the most likely outcome is a fight to the death, as hap­pened with vhs and Betamax. Histori­cally, Sony has often been in the losing camp, starting with Betamax. This time around, however, Sony has several fac­tors in its favour. For one thing, Blu-ray is the more mature technology, and is al­ready shipping. Second, Sony now owns two of the top ten Hollywood studios; its recent acquisition of mgm was widely assumed to be motivated in large part by a desire to bolster support for Blu-ray.

But the potential ace up Sony's sleeve is its next-generation games console, the PlayStation 3, which will use Blu-ray disc: to store games and will double as a Blu-ray player. If Sony can launch the console next year, before hd-dvd devices be­come widely available, it may be able to establish critical mass for Blu-ray. Yet if the Hollywood studios come down firmly in favour of hd-dvd, that could relegate Blu-ray to obscurity. The next few months will be critical, and the battle could still go either way. "By late 2005 it will be very clear who the winner is going to be," says Mr Nagrani. Technology may have moved on since the time of the vh s and Betamax contest—but unfortunatel for consumers, standards wars persist.

  1. Read and discuss the article. Do you think that grid computing's biggest problem? Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

GRID COMPUTING

When is a grid not a grid? It depends whom you ask. According to many in the computer industry, grid comput­ing—which roughly means the harness­ing of the collective processing power of many computers in different places-is here today, and is already widespread. Yet according to others, grid computing, while promising, is still years away from becoming a reality. Who is right?

The problem is that "grid" has been co-opted as a buzzword and applied to a number of entirely different things. The term "grid computing" was originally coined by Ian Foster of America's Argonne National Laboratory in the late 1990s. He meant to draw an analogy between the supply of computing power and the supply of electricity, which is delivered along a wire, when you need it and with no need to worry about where it came from.

In 2002, Dr Foster drew up his own three-part definition of grid computing. A grid, he proposed, should co-ordinate computing resources that are not cen­trally controlled, rely on open standards, and provide more reliability than stand-­alone machines. Alas for Dr Foster, his checklist immediately raised hackles within the computer industry, since much existing "grid computing" software fails to meet these criteria. Linking many small computers together to create a more powerful machine, for example, is not new, and is usually called clustering. For marketing purposes, however, some firms like to call it grid instead.

Similarly, grid is often confused— sometimes deliberately, for marketing reasons—with equally nebulous terms such as utility computing, on-demand computing, autonomic computing and data-centre virtualisation. Behind all this terminology is the idea of continuously and automatically adjusting the configu­ration of a corporate data-centre to meet the demands made on it. But Andrew Chien, a grid pioneer at the University of California at San Diego, notes that though useful, such approaches generally eschew the harder part of the grid vision, which requires automated sharing of computing resources between different organisations, not just within one firm.

A well-known example of the sharing of computing resources across the internet is SETi@home, in which over half a million people help to sift radio-telescope readings for evidence of extra­terrestrial life using a glorified screen-saver running on their pcs. Other similar projects, such as ibm's new World Community Grid, conduct medical re­search. But David Anderson, the director of SETi@home, rejects the grid label, pre­ferring the term "public resource comput­ing". Others call it "internet computing" or "cycle scavenging". While it is grid-like in some respects, this approach is very task-specific and is centrally con­trolled—so it is not truly grid.

Some firms, such as United Devices, sell proprietary software for cycle scav­enging within a single company. Idle pcs can. for example, run drug-design soft­ware in a pharmaceuticals company or evaluate a derivatives portfolio for a fi­nancial-services firm. Early adopters of this technology claim impressive bene­fits. Yet since all the resources are con­trolled by a single organisation, purists argue that this is at best an "intragrid",just as an intranet is a private, internal version of the internet.

What of those deliberately decentral­ised systems, peer-to-peer file-sharing networks? Some of them, at least, operate using open standards, and they are certainly robust: repeated attempts to close them down have failed. But they do not count as grid computing either, since they are mostly storage and distribution systems, and do not perform general purpose data-processing.

Grid computing is not entirely fic­tional, however: scientists have been building grids on a national or even global scale for several years. A good ex­ample is the lhc Computing Grid, which links large clusters and storage systems in 87 computer centres around the world, for the benefit of particle physicists. An­other example is TeraGrid, an American effort to link nine large supercomputing centres for scientific use. Even within the academic arena, though, convergence towards common standards is slow, partly because each grid project tends to rein-vent the wheel. To tackle this problem, tbe European Union launched a major initiative called egee this year to provide a common grid infrastructure for scien­tists: America has a similar initiative.

The hope is that such projects will provide the first glimpse of ‘the grid’ a single global computing grid that will do for DTA proceeding what the world wide web did for online publishing. Wolfgang Gentzsch, a former grid guru at Sun Microsysrems who is now director of mcnc North Carolina's statewide grid initiative, says the term "grid" really re­fers to this ultimate goal, towards which today's systems are merely stepping stones. But it would, he admits, be more accurate to refer to them as "grid-like" or using "grid technology".

Constructing a single, global grid will mean solving difficult security, privacy and billing problems. Scientists have a tradition of sharing their results and re­sources, but others do not. Yet the hurdles are not so much technological as politi­cal, economic and terminological. The dream of a single grid, akin to the web in its simplicity and pervasiveness, still seems a long way off-as does agreement about what "grid" really means.

  1. Read and discuss the article . Despite the legal wrangles over music piracy, peer-to-peer technology has many uses and is here to stay. Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

IN PRAISE OF P2P

Imagine an ideal global information-storage system. It would have to be huge, capable of delivering any one of millions of files, some of them of enor­mous size, to anywhere in the world with­in moments. It would have to be self-configuring and self-healing, rather than centrally controlled, to ensure there was no single point of failure. And it would have to be secure, capable of supporting millions of users, while resisting constant assault both from physical attacks on its infrastructure and from malicious soft­ware circulated within the network.

Such a system sounds highly desir­able, particularly when compared with the internet, which has become a piece of critical economic infrastructure but is be­set by constant security scares and can be­come clogged up if too many users try to do the same thing at once. Yet this ideal system already exists, in the form of peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing networks such as eDonkey and KaZaA.

The technology, which is used by mil­lions of music lovers to download songs-usually infringing copyrights-is reviled by the entertainment industry. In Amer­ica and Europe, music and film compa­nies are using the courts and lobbying for new laws to outlaw P2P technology. In October, trade groups representing the entertainment industry went so far as to petition America's Supreme Court to con­sider whether makers of P2P software should face "secondary liability" for copyright infringement by their users. Of­ficials at America's Department of Justice have even suggested that using P2P sup­ports terrorism. The technology is also condemned as a distribution system for il­legal pornography.

Yet rather than being demonised, there are good reasons why the technology should be celebrated-and its benefits more widely studied and exploited. Argu­ing that the internet's robustness and se­curity could be improved using technology generally associated with music piracy might seem strange, admits Yochai Benkler of Yale Law School, who raised the idea in a recent paper, but the suggestion is a tribute to "how robust these systems are". P2P networks have, after all, withstood years of legal, techni­cal and physical assault but still work.

The widespread equation of P2P with piracy has obscured the fact that the same technology is also being constructively applied in all sorts of fields, from content distribution and internet-rooted calls to distributed storage and Peer-to-peer technology is emerging as a powerful new approach to building large-scale computer systems, regardless of the entertainment industry's legal efforts.

Technically, "peer-to-peer" refers to a computer's ability to communicate di­rectly with other computers running the same software, without having to go through intermediaries. While this might appear to describe the internet itself, the reality is slightly different. Although the internet was originally designed to be de­centralised, it has evolved into more of a hub-and-spoke system. Personal comput­ers at the edge of the network connect to powerful servers in the centre to do things such as send e-mails or retrieve web pages. What was once a network of equals, made up of machines that were both producers and consumers of con­tent, became something that "looked like television with packets," says Clay Shirky, a technology consultant.

Strength in numbers

Peer-to-peer connects computers di-rectly-and once enjoined, personal com­puters can do things they are unable to do alone. Most P2P systems let users pool re­sources, be it processing power, storage capacity or bandwidth. In the case of mu­sic file-sharing, users are, in effect, creating an enormous shared filing system from which they can all retrieve songs. Over half of all internet traffic is now generated by peer-to-peer applications, accordir. \ CacheLogic, a P2P network-services com­pany in Britain. Figures from BigCham-pagne, an internet-research firm in Beverly Hills, California, suggest that at least io% of the content on P2P networks is legal, and does not violate the entertain­ment industry's copyrights. The most active P2P system, account­ing for an estimated 35% pf all internet traffic according to CacheLogic, is called BitTorrent. It is an open-source software project that is free to use and enables very large files to be stored and retrieved effi­ciently at essentially no cost. Though it is used for pirated music, it comes into its own when distributing really large files such as movies, games and large pieces of software such as the Linux operating system—things that would otherwise be very costly for companies or individuals to make available for download.

Part of BitTorrent's success stems from the way it creates incentives for users to give as well as to take.

16.

Read and summarize the article.

AUTHENTIC HERO.

LINUX, the free computer operating system developed by thousands of volunteers collaborating over the Internet, is still not taken very seriously in corporate circles. It is used for niche tasks, such as running web servers, but it is generally deemed to be too immature for the most demanding environments, such as heavy-duty database systems. Recent events, however, suggest that Linux—whose mascot is a cheerful penguin—may have outgrown the commune of its birth. On January 4th Linus Torvalds, the Finnish programmer who co­ordinates the development of Linux, quietly released the latest version of the Linux kernel—the software that, as its name suggests, is at the core of the operating system. Many of the enhancements in this new kernel (version 2.4) make Linux more suitable for corporate use. In particular, they make it more "scalable"—in other words, as capable of working on very large computer systems as on small ones. Linux 2.4 can support more processors, more memory, and raster networking and disk access—all prerequisites for industrial-strength corporate use. Just as the software itself has become more solid, so support for Linux within the computer industry has also been growing. IBM, which has embraced Linux across its product range, from PCS to mainframes, announced in December that it would spend $1 billion on Linux-related activities in 2001. And this week the Open Source Development Laboratory, an independent, not-for-profit research centre financed by such in­dustry giants as ibm. Intel and Dell, opened its doors. It is intended to accelerate the adoption of Linux in business computing, and to allow developers to test their software on the largest systems. In other words, with the notable exceptions of Microsoft and Sun Microsystems, the industry is pushing Linux for use in corporate computing. Linux is also proving a popular choice for powering Internet appliances, such as handheld computers and smart telephones. And. at the other end of the scale, it is emerging as a powerful force in the specialist field of supercomputing. By connecting hundreds of PCS Running Linux in a "cluster", it is possible to construct an enormously powerful machine for a fraction of the cost of a conventional supercomputer, ibm recently started installing a 1.024-processor Linux supercomputer at Shell's research centre in the Netherlands, where the oil company plans to use it to analyse geophysical data and to help it find oil. And on January 16th. Amer­ica's National Centre for Supercomputing Applications said that it had agreed to buy two Linux supercomputers from IBM. one of which will be the fourth-fastest supercomputer in the world when it is switched on this summer. There are some fears that the embrace of Linux by big computing companies could prove a mixed blessing. George Weiss of Gartner, a research firm, suggests that IBM. in particular, "looms like a shadow" over the future of Linux: its obvious enthusiasm, he says, might deter new firms from entering the market for Linux support and services. Any attempt by big computing companies to hijack Linux, declares Eric Raymond, an open-source guru, would be counter-pro­ductive, since it would alienate the very people from whom Linux draws its strength. Yet it is inevitable, as Linux becomes increasingly popular, that it will shed the revolutionary cachet which, for some of its supporters, is its greatest appeal.

17.

Read and summarize the article.

rebel code: linux and the open-source revolution. By Glyn Moody. When, during its antitrust trial in 1999. Microsoft had to name some competitors to prove that Windows was not a monopoly, it could point to just two. One was its old enemy, Apple, which had been briefly resurgent under Steve Jobs but these days was utterly dependent on Microsoft's willingness to carry on producing a version of its Office software that would run on the Mac operating system. The other was Linux, a free operating system that was the product not of a rival company, but of the work of thousands of anonymous hackers choreographed by a young Finnish student called Linus Torvalds. In truth, Linux as an operating system for desktop pcs provides as little real competition to Windows as docs' old Apple. That may come, although it is far from certain that something made for geeks by geeks will ever win widespread acceptance among consumers. But in the vital market for the operating systems that run the millions of small-to-medium-sized server computers that offer web-pages, handle e-mail and do countless other routine administrative tasks. Linux is already more ubiquitous than equivalent versions of Windows. Even more worryingly for Bill Gates. Linux, actively supported by powerful companies, such as ibm. Dell and even Intel, is getting ready to move up the computing food chain and into the corporate data centre—which is precisely where Microsoft is determined its strategically vital and expensively developed Windows 2000 should prevail. That something created by "hobbyists", as Mr Gates calls them, may be doing more to threaten Microsoft's hegemony than wealthy and aggressive rivals, such as Sun Microsystems and Oracle, is nothing short of revolutionary. This alone makes the story that "Rebel Code" tells important. In its way, Linux and other open-source products are as disruptive to the "traditional" software business as is the Internet. The Internet and open source reinforce each other, the former making possible new models of collaborative working, the latter supporting the Internet's preference for open, non-proprietary standards. It is no accident that open source is better suited to developing reliable utility-type software than sophisticated applications. The virtue of "Rebel Code" is that it largely eschews hype and is clearly written, if at times in rather technical prose. Its weakness is that it conveys little of the unfolding drama and not nearly enough of the personalities and motivations of the extraordinary people who have helped to shape the open-source movement: its spiritual father, the quasi-communist coder. Richard Stallman: the libertarian polemicist - Eric Raymond whose love affair with free software is matched only by his passion for guns: or the enigmatic Linus Torvalds himself, who has guided Linux for ten years and who has become an authentic hero within a community that instinctively distrusts such things.